Pizarro Executes Last Inca Emperor - HISTORY
CHAPTER IVo The Discovery and Conquest of Florida. . Inca, who held the chief authority in the place, and was accounted by the Cuseans as It was an arduous task for Fernando Pizarro, a heavy man with ponderous armor, totally. Francisco Pizarro (ca. –) arrived in present-day northern Peru late in with a small force of about men and 30 horses. Taking advantage of a. Francisco Pizarro González was a Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that conquered the Inca Empire. He captured and killed Incan emperor Atahualpa , and claimed the lands for This discovery gave Pizarro the motivation to plan a third expedition to conquer the area. He returned to Panama to make.
The conquistador described the territory as rich in gold and silver that he and his followers had bravely explored "to extend the empire of Castile". The king, who was soon to leave for Italy, was impressed at his accounts and promised his support for the conquest of Peru. Pizarro was officially named the Governor, Captain generalAdelantado and Alguacil Mayor, of New Castile for the distance of leagues along the newly discovered coast and invested with all authority and prerogatives, leaving his associates in secondary positions a fact that later incensed Almagro and would lead to eventual discord.
One of the grant conditions was that within six months, Pizarro should raise a sufficiently equipped force of men, of whom might be drawn from the colonies. Two more of his brothers from his father, Juan Pizarro and Gonzalo Pizarro: He was there joined by his brother Hernando and the remaining men in two vessels that would sail back to Panama. The latter had stayed in Panama to gather more recruits. Soon after, Hernando de Sotoanother conquistador who had joined the expedition, arrived with volunteers and horses to aid Pizarro and with him sailed towards Tumbes, : The two conquistadors expected that the settlers had disappeared or died under murky circumstances.
The chiefs explained that the fierce tribes of Punians had attacked them and ransacked the place. After a week, he returned with an envoy from the Inca himself, with presents and an invitation to visit the Inca ruler's camp.
Arriving at Cajamarca on 15 NovemberPizarro had a force of just foot soldiers, 67 cavalry, three arquebuses and two falconets. He sent Hernando Pizarro and de Soto to meet with Atahualpa in his camp. Atahualpa agreed to meet Pizarro in his Cajamarca plaza fortress the next day. Fray Vincente de Valverde and native interpreter Felipillo approached Atahualpa in Cajamarca's central plaza.
After the Dominican friar expounded the "true faith" and the need to pay tribute to the Emperor Charles VAtahualpa replied, "I will be no man's tributary. The Spanish were successful. Pizarro executed Atahualpa's man honor guard and took the Inca captive at the so-called Ransom Room. By FebruaryAlmagro had joined Pizarro in Cajamarca with an additional men and 50 horses. He was executed by garrote on 29 August Francisco Pizarro and de Soto were opposed to Atahualpa's execution, but Francisco consented to the trial due to the "great agitation among the soldiers", particularly by Almagro.
De Soto was on a reconnaissance mission the day of the trial and execution and upon his return expressed his dismay, stating, "he should have been taken to Castile and judged by the emperor. We can assure your Majesty that it is so beautiful and has such fine buildings that it would be remarkable even in Spain.
Pizarro founded the city of Lima on Peru's central coast on 6 Januarywhich he considered to be one of the most important things he had created in life. The dispute had originated from a disagreement on how to interpret the limit between the governorates. Almagro's son, also named Diego and known as El Mozo, was later stripped of his lands and left bankrupt by Pizarro. Atahualpa's wife, year-old Cuxirimay Ocllo Yupanqui, was with Atahualpa's army in Cajamarca and had stayed with him while he was imprisoned.
The Great Inca Rebellion
Following his execution, she was taken to Cuzco and given the name Dona Angelina. Byit was known she had borne Pizarro two sons, Juan and Francisco. While trying to pull out his sword, he was stabbed in the throat, then fell to the floor where he was stabbed many times. He died moments after. Diego de Almagro the younger was caught and executed the following year after losing the battle of Chupas. A civil war emerged between the brothers and lasted for two years.
Atahualpa ruled the northern empire while his brother ruled the southern region. Eventually, Atahualpa captured and imprisoned his brother and was seen as the sole ruler of the Incan Empire. He did this with about 80, troops. This was a bloody civil war that had caused severe distrust and division in the Incan Empire, which the Spanish later exploited when they invaded. Map of the Incan Empire Caught by the Spanish Immediately after the civil war, Atahualpa received word that there were some foreign invaders.
He had a nobleman investigate, and it was determined these foreigners were not a threat. Atahualpa invited the Spanish explorers, led by Francisco Pizarro, to his camp since there was less than of them. Atahualpa entered on a litter with his unarmed escorts, and the Spanish ambushed him and slaughtered his escorts.
Atahualpa was treated kindly by his captors.
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Alnrgro's Entrance by night into Cusco. Fernando Pizarro jtakrthef co p6and qf h[i rJher's Army, Fernando Pizarro to Spain The Marquis and the Men of Chili. The Conspiracy of Almagro's Friends. Arrival of Vaca de Castro. Dismay of the Spanish Colonists in Peru. The Auditors seize upon the person of the Viceroy, and embark him for Spain. Appointment of the Licentiate De ]a Gasca. His Negotiations at Panamt, Correspondence hbetteen thc -'reladent and Gonzalo Pizarro.
The President enters Peru. Pizarro occupies the City of Cusco. The Battle of Sacsahuana. The President's allotment of Encomiendas. Las Casas as a Bishop The Controversy between Sepulveda and Las Casas Final Labors and Death of Las Casas Laws relating to Encomiendas and Personal Services Laws regulating Negro Slavery, and preventing the Slavery of the Indians Results of the Spanish Legislation in favor of the Indians.
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The feud between the Pizarros and the Ahlmagros, which forms the next great series of e-venets in American history, is one of the most memortable quarrels in the worlcd. Pizarro and Alnlagro were two rude, unlettered men, of questionable origin; but their disputes were of as much importance to imankind as almost any which occurred in that century, rich as it is in historical incident, except perhaps the long-continumed quarrel between the Emperor Charles the Fifth and Francis the First.
Moreover, the European feud between these imLonarchs was important chiefiy on account of its indirect consequences, inasmuch as it gave room for the PRefo'rmation to.
Its effects were distinctly risible for a century afterward, whereas the wars between France and Spain, t'hough they seemed to be all-important at the time, did not leave any perlmanent mark upon either country. There were no signs, however, of the depth and fatality of this feud between the Pizarros and Almagros at the period immediately succeeding the execution of Atahuallpa.
That act of injustice having been perpetrated, Pizarro gave the royal boJc1a to a brother of the late Inca, and set out from Cassamarca on his way to Cusco. It was now time to extend his conquests and to make himself lmaster of the chief city in Peru. Accordlingly, in company writh his comrade Almagro and the new Inca, Pizarro quitted Cassamarca in the summer ofhaving remained in that beautiful district seven months.
It is unnecessary to give any detailed account of the events of this journey. The hostile Indians, wherever met, were encountered and routed by the Spaniards, wvith the aid, as tlley imagined, of their tutelary saint, whose assistance, however, does not seem to have been much needed. The newly-appointed Inca died. The death of this prince has been attributed to the grief he felt at the depression of his royal race.
His most devoted followers sought to conlquer this resolution; but they did so in vain; andc, giving wary to unutterable disgust at his subservient position, he expired in t-rwo months' time after he had received the borla from the hanlds of the man who had, conquered his people and taken away his brother's life. Chilicuvchiman the unfortunate general wThom Ferclinancl Pizarro had persuaded to accomlpany him to the Spanish quarters, became suspected of being in commilunication withl the enemy, and was most unjustly condelned to be burnit by Pizarro.
VTIhen the Spaniards approached the city of Cusco, they found that the Indians there were disposed to make a great resistance. Les personnes qui lui etaient le plus devouees essayerent de le persuader. On employa les supplications et les larmes; mais tout fut inatile: Inca, who held the chief authority in the place, and was accounted by the Cuseans as the reignirng Inca, came out to meet Pizarro as a friend, in consequence of which the Spaniards entered " tlhe great and holy City" of Cusco after a slight resistance, on the 15th of Novenaber, Among the spoil were ten or twelve statues of female figures, made of fine gold, as large as life, and ";as beautiful and well wrought as if they had been alive.
The prilcipal warriors among, thenl were Quizqnuiz and iRumninavi. It will be sufficient to remark that all their efforts proved unavailing to stop the mlain current of the Spanish conqucest of Peru, whicl, howevere: This waas exactly a year after their entry into Cassamarca, which lhad taken place on the 1 5th of November, One of the most renowned companions of Cortez in his conquest of New Spain was Pedro de Alvarado, the conqueror of Guatemala: But the peculiar restlessness of Alvarado, and the difficulty for a man to leave off conquering whlo has once tasted the delight of conquest, tempted him now to farther enterprises.
The report of the riches of Peru sped quickly from South America over the provinces of Spain, and was so attractive that Charles the Fifth himself became embarrassed by his conquest of the Indies, which hindered his levies for European warfare. It was an easy task, however, for Alvarado to find recruits ready and willing to follovw him to these new lands; and, accordingly, in the yearwhen Pizarro was at Cusco, he heard to his dismay that Alvarado, with no fewer than five lhundred men-at-arms, had landed on tthe northern coast of Peru.
Pizarro at once dispatched Allnagro in ht; haste" to conquer or to gain over this new and fornniidable rival. The cdanger, however, to be apprehended from him soon grew less, for the expedition had been unfortunate at its outset. These new invaders, n-aturally disposed to take a different direction from that of Pizarro, and choosing Quito as their field of conquest, had great hardships to endure on their march to that country. That discreditable interpreter, Felipillo, had gone over to Alvaraclo's cam'p, while Alvarado's own secretary had deserted to Almagro.
There was no reason why Spaniards should contend with Spaniards, neither was there any particular enmity on either side toiward the other. Negotiations, therefore, were readily entered upon between the two opposing camps, and finally brought to a favorable conclusion by a licentiate named Caldera, who had accompanied Almnagro.
The substance of the treaty was that Alhnagro should give to Alvarado one hundred thousandcpesos, and in return that Alvaraclo should hand over the armament to the two partners Pizarro and Almagro, and should engage for himself to quit Peru. The articles of the treaty remained secret for a time, and imeanwhile the allied forces moved southward together on the road to Cusco.
Almagro had not the money wherewith to pay the sum agreed npon, and so they went to meet Pizarro. This was a most important treaty, and it seemed as if a great danger were thllus obviated in the conquest of Peru; but it fell out otherwise, for the principal men in Alvarado's armament having met first with Almagro, became attached to hlim, and were among his most zealous partisans, at a time when partisanship was the curse of Peru.
U " na cosa dirl por mlly cierta: There the three met, and, thoough " there was not wanting some one who" suggested to Pizarro to seize npon the person of Alvarado, or at least to reduce the amount to be paid for Alvarado's armament, Pizarro loyally and wisely fulfilled the agreement which had been made on his behalf by his partner Almagro.
There was then some proposition about a league being formed between the Governor of Guatemala, Pizarro, and Alnlmagro-also about the marriage of the son of Ahlmagro to the daughter of Alvarado; bat Ahnagro would not hear of this league, saying that it would be impossible for three partners to keep the peace. The excuse which Alvarado offered for his presence in Peru was 1; that, being intent on discovering eastward where no other person had been, such news came of the greatness of the treasures of Quito, that, not thinking to find any of Pizarro's captains in that part, he was -unable to resist the wishes of his own people to go there.
Then the Governor of Guatenmala departed, having made, as far as he himself was concerned, a sordid and sorry end to the enterprise.
It afterward received the name of Lima. The i ariscal such was the title which had been recently conferred on Almagiro took his leave, acconlpIanied by the greater part of Alvaraclo's mlen, whom he had attracted by his amniable nature and profuse liberality.
While these events had been occurring in Peru, Fernando Pizarro had reached the court of Spain. It was in January,that he arrived at Seville, and.
Spanish Relations with the Incan Empire
The result of his negotiation with the court was, that he obtained for his brother the Iarquisate of Atavillos, a -valley not far from Xauxa, the habit of Santiago for himself, the Bishopric of Cusco for Vicente de Valverde and a governorship for Allagro, wlhich was to commence where Pizarro's ended, and was to be called Nueva Toledo.
On the other hand, as some acknowledgmlent of these honors and dignities, Fernarndo held out hopes of procuring from Peru a large donation to the Emperor, who was about to commence his expedition to Barbary. AbanCay, where lie communicated this intelligence to him. It served to exalt Almagro greatly in his own1 opinion. Some say that he threw up the office wwhichl held under Pizarro, claimingr to rule Cusco on his own account; others, that Pizarro recalled the powers with which lie had intruisted Allmazgro for the government of Cusco, appointing his brother Juan Pizarro to be governor.
It is certain that dissensions between the younger Pizarros and Almagro arose at this time, which the marquis was obliged to come to Cusco to pacify. Pizarro, on meeting his old friend, after they had embraced with many tears, spoke thus: Where was your judgment, that, sharing with me equally in what there is, you have entered into quarrels witlh my brothers' Ahlmagro answered that there was no occasion for Pizarro to have come with all this haste, since he had sent him word of all that had passed; and, proceeding to justify himself, lie added that Pizarro's brothers had not been able to conceal their jealousy because the king had honored him.
Thle Licentiate Caldera, a grave and wise man, now intervened, as he had clone before, between the mariscal and Peldro de Alvaradco; and the result was, that the marcuis and the mlariscal renewedi their amlity in the most solemn manner, standing before the altar, and each invoking upon himself perdition of soul, body, fame, honor, ancd estate if he should break this solemn compact.
The mariscal now resolved to enter his own territory, where he could be free from the Pizarros, and accordingly lie prepared to march into Chili, which certainly fell within the confines of his government.
In making preparations for his departure he lavished his resources, giving those who would follow himn money to buy arms and horses, upon the simple uinderstandcling that they would repay him from their gains in the country where they were going. As he was now greatly popular, his service was readily elmbraced, and some even of thlose who had repacertiznientos at Cusco resolved to throw themn up and follow the niariscal.
The Inca placed at his disposal the services of his brother Paullo and of the highpriest Villaoma, who were ordered to accomlpany Almlagro into Chili. These lie sent on before; aind his lieutenant general Iodrigo Orgofiez was to follow with the rest of the people. It may show how nmuchl Almagro's service was sought after that so cdistinguished a person in Pizarro's calmp as Fernando de Soto was greatly disappointed at 10ot being nanlecl lieutenant general of the mariscal's forces.
Francisco Pizarro - Wikipedia
The day before Almlagro's departure lie is said to have begged Pizarro to send his brothers back to Castile, saying that for that end lie would be -wNilling that Pizarro should give them fromi the joint estate riwhatever alnount of treasure lie pleased; that such a course would give general content in the landl, for "there was no one whonl those gentlemlen would not insult, relying upon their relationship to hlim.
He was a stout man of lofty stature, with a large tongue and heavy lips, and the end of the nose very fleshy and red[; and this man was the disturber of the quiet of all, and especially of the two ancient associates [Francisco Pizarro and Diego Ailmagro. It is true that the promotion of near relatives is, and always has been, a very offensive thin. The eertainty of this faithfuless has doubtless weighed inmuch with mlen likeI Pizarro, newly and suddenly possessed of power, and it was a diffic-ult questicon for him to decide lwhether, in his case, it was not wise to endure the odiumL-'0: The fickle Athenians were wearied of a single Aristicles, but if it had been Aristides and his kinsmen, all equally good, equally just, and equally fit to occupy several of the chief places of the state, even the wisest and gravest nation would have been glad.
The marquis, unwilling to deprive himself of the services of such brothers, would not listen to the counsels of the mariscal in this nmatter, wmhich counsels, how ever, have been held by commentators to be very sagacious. The Governor of Nueva Toledo set out to concluer the country that had been assigned to him: Juan Pizarro was left in command at Cusco. Shortly after the reconciliation of the two governors, Fernando Pizarro returned from the court of Spain, bringing dispatches to his brother the mlarquis which contained the provisions that have already been mentioned.
Fernando had undertaken a very odious task wnhen lie promised the court of Spain to seek for a'1 benevolence" from the colonists of Peru. To all his exhortations they replied that they had duly paid their fifths to the king, which had been gained with their blood and labor, at no risk of the royal estate; and they maliciously remarked that Ferdinand Pizarro had brought back nothinog for them, though lie had obtained a marquisate for his brother, and the Order of Santiago for himself.
To these insinuations Fernando Pizarro adroitly andcl alarmingly made answer, that the ransom of Atahuallpa which they had divided, being the ransom of a royal person, of right belonged to the Emperor. In order to obtain the sum required from Cusco, and also to keep the Indians quiet for an uncle of Alanco Inca had been rebelling lately, and endeavoring to persuade his nephew to join in the rebellionPizarro resolved to send his brother Fernando to supersede Juan in the government of that city.
It is said that the marquis had respect also to any danger there might be from the smothered discontent of the mariscal or his followers, and therefore wished to have a person of Fernando's weight and authority at the city which was nearest to Almnagro's province.
Fernando accepted the charge, and repaired to Cusco. When he arrived there, he found that his brothers Juan and Gonzalo were absent, being engaged in an expedition to ehastise some rebel caciques. When his brothers had returned from their foray, Ferdinand Pizarro brought the business of the benevolence before the town council of Cusco, saying how much it would become the inhabitants of the town to do his majesty some service, the royal estate being exhausted in the wars with the French and the Grand Turk.
His exhortation was received with great disgust, and the part he had undertaken served to make him very unpopular. I-fe seems, however, to have had some success in his mission, for he was engaged in the business of melting gold when news came that the district of Collao was in revolt, that the Indians had killed some Spaniards, and that Villaoma whom the Periuvians held in the same veneration in which the Spaniards held the VOL.
Fernando Pizarro asked tile Inca if all this intelligence were true. The Inca replied that it was true; that Collao was in revolt, and that Villaoma had returned on account of the ill treatment which he had received from Aihnagro's people, who had sought to carry him in chains; and the Inca added that his own brother Paullo was in chains. Several of the Spanish historians assert confidently that there was a deep-laid conspiracy between Villaoma and the Inca, concerted before the departure of the mariscal; but nothing appears more probable than that, in the sufferings and difficulties of a long and most arduous journey, the Indian chiefs should have been suspected and ill treated, as Chilicuchiima had been in Pizarro's march from Cassamarca to Cusco.
The Inca asked leave to go ont of the city to receive Villaomua, which request being granlted, the two great Indian authorities, the Inca and the high -priest, returned together into Cusco, when they both went straight to the Temple of the Sun, and there, according to Valverde, Villaoma not only complained of his injuries, but counseled revolt.
Two days afterward, the Inca, with many of tile chiefs, came to Pizarro's quarters to ask leave to go to a valley called Yucay, inl order to celebrate certain ceremonies in honor of the Inca's father, I-uayna Capac, who was buried there, and to whomn it was customary to perform those rites every year. This request was granted. This he did, in order to blind his enemies to the real purpose which he had in view.
Ferdinand Pizarro gave no credit to this report, but merely sent a message to the Inca, begging him to hasten his return, in order to accompany him in an expedition to chastise the caciques of Collao, who were in rebellion.Francisco Pizarro: Spanish Conquistador - Fast Facts - History
On the contrary, being now within the protection of this rugged country, he was enabled to proclaim his designs in all their fullness. A great assembly was held of the caciques and other principal persons of the district; and it may be imagined what orations, full of grief, shame, and lamentation, were uttered on that occasion.