ACTA ACCLA - XII Caesars - Emperor Augustus
1 Julius Caesar - The Man Who Ended the Republic 1- The Roman Republic · 2- Julius and Augustus Caesar Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC. . The political marriage of Julia and Pompey had meant to cement the ties .. Against the worried advice of his family, Octavian boldly went to Rome to claim his. Augustus, Emperor of Rome, 63 B.C. - 14 A.D. Augustus (63 BCE –14 CE) was Crucial to his success was his marriage to Julius Caesar's niece Atia, who To accept the inheritance meant taking Caesar's name; against the advice of his. Octavius, later known as Augustus, was only about 18 when Julius died. Julius was his maternal great uncle and was assassinated in 44 B.C.
Approach to the Politics | Julius Caesar and Augustus
They are the only two men to have months named after them in the calendar we still use today—which in all its important features is the one introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC.
Both of them changed Rome, shaping the empire that has had such a profound influence on the history and culture of the western world. Without Caesar there could have been no Augustus. Without Augustus then it is more than likely that we would not remember Julius Caesar as being much different from the other Roman warlords like Sulla or Pompey.
Augustus - Wikipedia
It was the success of Augustus which ensured that all future emperors would take the name Caesar, turning what was simply another family name into a title of ultimate power which was to endure into the twentieth century in the forms Kaiser and Tsar. Both Caesar and Augustus deserve to be remembered, but any balanced judgement must acknowledge that it was the latter who did the most to shape the history of Rome and the wider world.
Adrian Goldsworthy is a leading historian of the ancient world and author of acclaimed biographies of Julius Caesar and Antony and Cleopatra among many other books. National Maritime Museum, London. From this point on, by a long and gradual series of tentative, patient measures, he established the Roman principate, a system of government that enabled him to maintain, in all essentials, absolute control.
Gradually reducing his 60 legions to 28, he retained approximatelylegionaries, mostly Italian, and supplemented them by about the same number of auxiliaries drawn from the provinces. A permanent bodyguard the Praetoriansbased on the bodyguards maintained by earlier generals, was stationed partly in Rome and partly in other Italian towns. A superb network of roads was created to maintain internal order and facilitate trade, and an efficient fleet was organized to police the Mediterranean.
In 28 bce Octavian and Agrippa held a census of the civil populationthe first of three during the reign. They also reduced the Senate from about 1, to later compliant members, and Octavian was appointed its president.
Government and administration Remembering, however, that Caesar had been assassinated because of his resort to naked power, Octavian realized that the governing class would welcome him as the terminator of civil war only if he concealed his autocracy beneath provisions avowedly harking back to republican traditions.
At the same time, he was granted a year tenure of an area of government provincia comprising SpainGauland Syriathe three regions containing the bulk of the army.
The remaining provinces were to be governed by proconsuls appointed by the Senate in the old republican fashion. The word augustus was often contrasted with humanus; its adoption as the title representing the new order cleverly indicated, in an extraconstitutional fashion, his superiority over the rest of mankind.
Approach to the Politics
With the aid of writers such as VirgilLivyand Horaceall of whom in their different ways shared the same ideas, he showed his patriotic veneration of the old Italian faith by reviving many of its ceremonials and repairing numerous temples. Military operations continued in many frontier areas. In 25 bce recalcitrant Alpine tribes were reduced, and Galatia central Asia Minor was annexed.
Mauretaniaon the other hand, was transferred from Roman provincial status to that of a client kingdom, for such dependent monarchiesas in the later republic, bore a considerable part of the burden of imperial defense.
Augustus himself visited Gaul and directed part of a campaign in Spain until his health gave out; in 23 bce he fell ill again and seemed on the point of death.
The Roman Empire
Feeling, amid reports of conspiraciesthat new constitutional steps were necessary, he proceeded to terminate his series of consulships in favour of a power imperium majus that was separated altogether from office and its practical inconveniences.
He was also awarded the power of a tribune tribunicia potestas for life. Earlier he had accepted certain privileges of a tribune. The full power he now assumed carried with it practical advantages, notably the right to convene the Senate. This was, perhaps, needed all the more because Augustus himself—while admittedly supporting the interests of poorer people by a great extension of the right of judicial appeal—tended to back the established classes as the keystone of his system.
Meanwhile Augustus himself traveled in SicilyGreeceand Asia 22— In 19 bce Agrippa completed the subjugation of Spain.
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- THE TWELVE CAESARS
In 17 there were resplendent celebrations of ancient ritual, known as the Secular Gamesto purify the Roman people of their past sins and provide full religious inauguration of the new age. Although the principate was not an office which could be automatically handed on, Augustus seemed to be indicating his views regarding his ultimate successor when he adopted the two sons of his daughter Julia, boys aged three and one, who were henceforward known as Gaius Caesar and Lucius Caesar.
Proceeding across the Alpsthey annexed Noricum and Raetiacomprising large parts of what are now SwitzerlandAustriaand Bavariaand extended the imperial frontier from Italy to the upper Danube 16—15 bce. It was probably during these years that an executive, or drafting, committee consilium of the Senate was established in order to help Augustus to prepare senatorial business.
His administrative burden was also lightened by the expansion of his own staff knights, who could also now rise to a number of key posts, and freedmen to form the beginnings of a civil servicewhich had never existed before but was destined to become an essential feature of the imperial system. Gradually, too, a completely reformed administrative structure of RomeItalyand the whole empire was evolved. The financial system that made this possible was evidently far more effective than anything the empire had ever seen until then.
The system was based on the central treasury aerariumbut the details of its relationship with the treasuries of the provincesand particularly the provincia of Augustus, are still imperfectly understood, partly because, although the emperor proudly recorded his gifts to the central treasury, he did not report what funds passed in the opposite direction.
The taxation providing these resources apparently included two main direct taxes: There were also indirect taxes, which as in the past were farmed out to contractors because their yield was unpredictable and the embryonic civil service lacked the resources to handle them. The republican customs dues continued; but the rates were low enough not to hamper trade, which, in the peaceful conditions created by Augustus, flourished in wholly unprecedented fashion. Industries did not exist on a very large scale, but commerce was greatly stimulated by a sweeping reform and expansion of the Roman coinage.
Gold and silver pieces, their designs reflecting many facets of imperial publicity, were issued in great quantities at a number of widely distributed mints. The Rome mint was reopened for this purpose about 20 bce. He took all of these viewpoints into account when he made decisions on policies for the people.
Bust of Augustus http: He set about to shorten the duration of consulship because he wanted as many people as possible to hold the office of consul, so that his agenda would be unhindered. When the city was damaged by flooding and in dire straits from disease and famine, the Romans wanted Octavian to be dictator and commissioner of the grain supply.Augustus: First Roman Emperor
Octavian made a strong play by declining the office of dictator, but accepted the position as commissioner of the grain supply. This showed his political strategy of not accepting positions of power that would lead to jealousy and hatred. This is a major reason he was able to avoid the same fate of Julius Caesar. He could rule with his standing army in the shadows, directing the empire under the guise of the Republic.
Not long after he tried to give up his powers, however, was a bargain struck between himself and the Senate, which gave him supreme power and a new name, Augustus.
These refusals of power and titles gave the people of Rome the impression that he was an honest man whose intentions were genuine and pure.