BBC NEWS | Europe | Timeline: Break-up of Yugoslavia
By a further conflict had broken out in Bosnia, which had also relations between Serbia and the only other remaining Yugoslav republic. The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and The conflict was initially between the Yugoslav Army units in Bosnia which 12 Croats and 4 Bosniaks of war crimes in connection with the war in Bosnia. Montenegrin troops from the Yugoslav army were bombarding the When it comes to Serbs and Bosnians, relations are more complicated.
Yugoslavia was considered to be a puppet government of the Soviet Union, attempting to expand communist rule into other countries, as hypothesized in the Domino Theory. Undersecretary of State Dean Acheson brought the theory before the U. Congress to persuade them into accepting responsibility for supporting such countries under communist pressure as Greece, i.
Foreign relations of Bosnia and Herzegovina - Wikipedia
The Truman Doctrinewhich embraced containment, resulted from American intervention in Greece. Churchill feared the Soviet Union's further expansion into Europe. Because of Tito's training in the Soviet Union, his attempts to gain the Adriatic territory raised the question about Italy's future political leanings. Failed attempts were made to bring down inflation by building up economies in the less-developed regions of Kosovo, Macedonia and Montenegro. Given the unraveling of Eastern European communism inand the Soviet Union inthe Yugoslav Federation no longer felt the threat of communist intervention from their big eastern brother.
The time of radical political change was ripe. The network of military alliances, held tightly together during the Cold War years, had radically changed. But instead of peace, the rise of ethnic nationalism began to create problems with no single ethnicity, and each group aligning with neighboring countries of their ethnic roots.
Appeals for nationalism were found in such events as President Milosevic's speech to a crowd of more than one million people on June 28, He demanded separatism by the Muslim Albanian majority living in Kosovo. In NovemberMolosevic became president with Although each ethnic group tolerated the other and mixed in public life, privately those ethnic groups remained separate and did not intermarry, which further widened the rift of differences between them.
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Bosnia became a problematic area in the s. Fighting over Bosnian territory In the early s, Bosnian Serbs began to chisel out portions of Bosnia for themselves.
Serbian leader Milosevic sent the Yugoslav National Army, along with Serb nationalist forces, across the Drina River into eastern Bosnia, and killed hundreds of thousands of Bosnians. Hostilities between the two ethnic groups intensified and fighting broke out in Zagreb with the Bosnian Croats who were directly supported by the Croatian government. The joint Federation of Bosnia-Herzegovina was formed in after the Bosnian Croats and Muslims agreed to a ceasefire.
The two groups joined forces to fight Bosnian Serb troops, who were directly supported by the Serbian government and led by Milosevic. Croatians launched a huge assault against the Krajina Serbs, killing approximately 14, Serb civilians and creatingSerb refugees the following year.
Breakup of Yugoslavia
In retaliation, the Serbs launched a counterattack on Zabreb that resulted in only a few deaths, but more than injuries. There is some debate about whether the U. There were reports that NATO planes were used to disable Serb command and control centers in the Krajina regions, which made the Serbs an easier target for Croatia.
At the same time, Croatian troops were being trained by the private consulting firm, Military Professional Resources, which was licensed by the U. However, the attempt to replay the anti-bureaucratic revolution in Ljubljana in December failed: Most of the Congress was spent with the Serbian and Slovene delegations arguing over the future of the League of Communists and Yugoslavia. SR Croatia's actions in preventing Serb protesters from reaching Slovenia played its part.
In turn, the Croats and Slovenes sought to reform Yugoslavia by delegating even more power to six republics, but were voted down continuously in every motion in an attempt to force the party to adopt the new voting system. This in turn, along with external pressure, caused the adoption of multi-party systems in all republics. Multi-party elections[ edit ] When the individual republics organized their multi-party elections inthe ex-communists mostly failed to win re-election, while most of the elected governments took on nationalist platforms, promising to protect their separate nationalist interests.
In multi-party parliamentary elections nationalists defeated re-branded former Communist parties in Slovenia on 8 Aprilin Croatia on 22 April and 2 Mayin Macedonia 11 and 25 November and 9 Decemberand in Bosnia and Herzegovina on 18 and 25 November In multi-party parliamentary elections, re-branded former communist parties were victorious in Montenegro on 9 and 16 Decemberand in Serbia on 9 and 23 December Serbia and Montenegro now increasingly favored a Serb-dominated Yugoslavia.
Initially the revolt became known as the " Log Revolution " as Serbs blockaded roadways to Knin with cut-down trees and prevented Croats from entering Knin or the Croatian coastal region of Dalmatia.
How Croatia and Serbia buried the hatchet
However the blockade was damaging to Croatian tourism. The Croatian government refused to negotiate with the Serb separatists and decided to stop the rebellion by force, and sent in armed special forces by helicopters to put down the rebellion. The pilots claimed they were bringing "equipment" to Knin, but the federal Yugoslav Air Force intervened and sent fighter jets to intercept them and demanded that the helicopters return to their base or they would be fired upon, in which the Croatian forces obliged and returned to their base in Zagreb.
To the Croatian government, this action by the Yugoslav Air Force revealed to them that the Yugoslav People's Army was increasingly under Serbian control.
Serbian politicians were alarmed by a change of phrasing in the Christmas Constitution of Croatia that changed the status of ethnic Serbs of Croatia, from an explicitly mentioned nation narod to a nation listed together with minorities narodi i manjine. The discovery of Croatian arms smuggling combined with the crisis in Knin, the election of independence-leaning governments in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia and Slovenia, and Slovenes demanding independence in the referendum on the issue suggested that Yugoslavia faced the imminent threat of disintegration.
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On 9 Marchthe March protests in Belgrade were suppressed with the help of the Army. On 12 Marchthe leadership of the Army met with the Presidency in an attempt to convince them to declare a state of emergency which would allow for the pan-Yugoslav army to take control of the country. An insidious plan has been drawn up to destroy Yugoslavia.
Stage one is civil war. Stage two is foreign intervention.