The truth about brewer's rice in pet food
The same goes for brewer's rice. A low-quality product purchased from an untrusted source will be bad for your pet, but if the ingredients are regulated and of the. literature regarding arsenic levels in rice from regions in Bangladesh with relatively Figure Correlation between arsenic species in Bangladeshi rice as a. Foods known to be high in arsenic, including rice and seafood, were Among the foods known to be high in arsenic, no clear relationship between toenail arsenic and rice consumption J Inst Brewing , –
Creatinine and specific gravity SG adjustment are widely used, but both methods are susceptible to interferences.
Variation in urinary creatinine has been demonstrated between demographic groups 41 and in response to variations in muscle mass 42 and malnutrition 43while possibly a more relevant deterrent of applying this adjustment factor is its observed relationship with As methylation efficiency Alternatively, because SG is routinely measured by refractometry, the presence of urinary solutes such as protein proteinuriaglucose glucosuria and ketones ketonuria alters the refractive index of the liquid irrespective of its dilution, thus giving inaccurate dilution estimates One alternative adjustment factor, seldom used in biomonitoring studies, is urinary osmolality.
In the case of cryoscopic osmometry, freezing point depression is measured. Freezing point is a colligative property reflective of solute content, expressed here by osmolality osmoles of solute per mass unit of solvent and is not vulnerable to the same interferences as SG measurement by refractometry.
Given the absence of 24 hr or timed excretion data in the present study, osmolality adjustment was preferred over the two alternative options. This study aimed to: Results Study group demographics The extent of the study area and spatial distribution of households is shown in Fig. A total of volunteers from households participated in the study. Henceforth, unless otherwise stated, this sub-group will be the focus of the present article.
We support ongoing research into methods to reduce levels of inorganic arsenic in rice. Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic can elevate the risk of cancer of various organs, as well as skin cancer. The levels of exposure in which this correlation has been documented has been at levels substantially greater than the levels found in rice. In epidemiological studies observing the effects of poor water quality, particularly in developing countries, scientists have found that high oral exposure to arsenic over time causes adverse health effects1.
Dangerously high levels of arsenic found in rice cakes for babies
For this reason, they established a guidance level of ppb for infant rice cereal. They also recommended that pregnant women eat a variety of grains and for infants to be given a variety of fortified infant cereals. The FDA did not establish a guidance level of inorganic arsenic in rice for other populations, but rather continued their recommendation to eat a well-balanced diet for good nutrition and to minimize potential adverse consequences from consuming an excess of any one food.
This is equivalent to one drop of water in a swimming pool, adding a pinch of salt to a ton bag of potato chips, or three seconds in a century.
As such, it has the responsibility for assessing potential contaminants in the food supply. It regularly monitors food distributed in the United States, and establishes standards so that we can have confidence in the safety of our food. In its guidance on the levels of inorganic arsenic in rice, the FDA set a level of ppb for inorganic arsenic in infant rice cereal. It also recommended that pregnant women eat a variety of grains and for infants to be given a variety of fortified infant cereals.
This is where the ALARA principle say the limit should be set at 10 ppb, as low as we can reasonably and reliably get it. The FDA established a guidance level of ppb of inorganic arsenic in infant rice cereal4.
Quality control samples were within 1 SD of the expected value [ 19 ]. Participants also completed a written, validated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire FFQ [ 3940 ] to quantify diet over the previous year. An annual FFQ should provide a good match to the time scale over which the toenail clippings provide an integrated measure of exposure [ 637 ].
The FFQ asked about the consumption of specific portion sizes of different items from seven broad categories dairy, fruits, vegetables, eggs and meat, breads, beverages, and baked goods over the previous month period; we analyzed associations between toenail arsenic and each of these diet items.
When participants skipped a question, we set the frequency of consumption to missing. As in MacIntosh et al. In addition, participants were interviewed, usually in their home, to obtain information on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors e.
Arsenic FAQ | Lundberg Family Farms
Statistical analyses Prior to analysis, we normalized data on toenail arsenic concentrations using natural-log ln transformation. Analyses reported here exclude the 70 subjects who did not report using their household water for drinking and cooking as well as subjects who did not meet the caloric thresholds suggested by Willett [ 42 ]: We also excluded from the analysis one individual with an extremely high toenail arsenic concentration 7.
This left us with a sample size of subjects, down from We then evaluated associations with the self-reported, estimated daily rate of consumption of each of the diet items in the FFQ. However, if there was a statistically significant interaction between the diet item and the water exposure group, we concluded that the association between water-corrected toenail arsenic and the diet item differed between the two water exposure groups and so conducted analyses separately for the two groups Models 2a and 2b.
Seven diet items were no longer significant after removal of such values and were not considered further. Although associations between toenail arsenic and demographic characteristics such as age have previously been described [ 19 ], the mechanisms behind these associations have not been elucidated. For example, we do not know whether age directly affects toenail arsenic, or whether age influences diet, which in turn influences exposure as indicated by toenail concentrations.
To help interpret regression coefficients from these adjusted models, we determined the percent change in predicted back-transformed toenail arsenic concentrations between 5th percentile and 95th percentile consumers for each food, using an approach similar to that described in Gruber et al.