Once the IQ-crime correlation is measured, the next task is to explain it. Why are IQ and crime negatively correlated? Explanations of the IQ-crime correlation. theories explaining the relationship between below average IQ and criminal behaviour is beyond the scope of the current paper, as is an in depth analysis. The purpose of the present study was to further explore the relationship between state IQ estimates and various categories of violent and property crimes.
Measures related to arousal such as heart rate and skin conductance are low among criminals. Mesomorphic or muscular body type is positively correlated with criminality, in particular with sexual crimes.
Testosterone levels positively correlate to criminal behavior. Low monoamine oxidase activity and low 5-HIAA levels tend to be found among criminals.
In addition, CDH13a gene previously tied to an increased risk of substance abusehas been tied to violent crime. The presence of the genetic profile is not determinative, although it increases the likelihood of delinquency in cases where other factors are present.
Ferguson stated, 'a large percentage of our behaviour in terms of violence or aggression is influenced by our biology - our genes - and our brain anatomy.
In combination with many other factors these genes may make it a little harder for you to control violent urges, but they most emphatically do not predetermine you for a life of crime. Race and crime and Immigration and crime Associated factors include race and crime and status as an immigrant. Some studies on immigrants found higher rates of crime among these populations; these rates vary according to the country of origin immigrants from some regions having lower crime rates than the indigenous population.
Deborah Denno analyzed data from African American school children in Philadelphia.
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Her data contained multiple measures of intelligence collected at ages four, seven, and thirteen as well as officially recorded criminal offenses. Chronic, violent offenders consistently had low IQ scores. For example, female chronic offenders were almost four times less likely to be in the top third of verbal-IQ test scores than female nonoffenders.
Similarly, male violent offenders scored 10 to 17 percentile points lower on measures of vocabulary, reading, and language than nonoffenders. In addition to finding a robust IQ-crime correlation, studies have turned up two other empirical regularities worth noting.
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The first regards two different types of IQ measures: Performance IQ is measured with nonverbal tests of attention to detail, manual design construction, and visual puzzle solving.
The socialization of children involves constant verbal communication and comprehension of abstract symbols; therefore, children with poor verbal and cognitive skills have greater difficulty completing the socialization process, which puts them at risk of undercontrolled, antisocial behavior.
Empirical studies overall have supported this developmental hypothesis Moffitt, p. A final causal explanation links IQ to crime through school performance.
Statistical correlations of criminal behaviour - Wikipedia
Less intelligent students do less well in school, which results in academic frustration. This frustration, in turn, weakens their attachment and commitment to schooling, and a weakened bond to school, as per social control theory, allows for more criminal behavior Hirschi and Hindelang.
This school-performance hypothesis has received strong support from empirical studies, and it is probably the most widely accepted explanation of the IQ-crime correlation Moffitt.
One last approach to IQ and crime deserves mention even though few criminological studies have examined it. Rather than low IQ increasing criminal behavior, criminal behavior might decrease IQ. Many facets of a criminal lifestyle can impair cognitive abilities, including physical injuries, especially head traumas, drug use, and withdrawing from school Moffitt. Citing this material Please include a link to this page if you have found this material useful for research or writing a related article.
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