Basics of Symbiosis - Untamed Science
The above image is an example of commensalism because the remora has a sucker and it m Save The Sharks, Sea Whale, Nurse Shark, Deep Sea, Deep Blue . Commensalism example Ocean Creatures, Oceans, Relationship, Corals . Some of these include clownfish and sea anemones, fleas and dogs, and sharks and remoras. Facultative symbioses are more loosely-associated relationships. In a commensal relationship, one organism benefits while the other is unaffected. By attaching itself to a leopard shark, the remora (right) is carried along on the.
For example, there are many tiny insects that live in bird nests. These insects consume waste that the birds produce, keeping the nest clean and decreasing the chance for the build-up of bacteria and disease, they get a free meal from the birds and the birds get free house-cleaning services.
Whale shark and remoras
These types of interactions are indirect and occur in nature in various capacities, many times going unrecognized. Ectosymbiosis occurs when symbionts members of the symbiotic relationship interact with each other in an open environment, like hummingbirds and trumpet flowers.
Endosymbiosis occurs when one symbiont lives within the body of another, which is the case with internal parasites like liver flukes and tapeworms.
There is a little bit of contention as to what the idea of symbiotic relationships actually encompasses. Some scientists believe that symbioses should only describe persistent interactions among organisms that remain over time.
Others feel that any type of interactions fall into this category.
Mutualism A mutualistic relationship is one in which both organisms benefit from interacting with each other. They cooperate with each other to achieve a desired outcome that will be beneficial to both of them.
Take the wrasse in the video clip for example.
Cleaner wrasses have a mutualistic relationship with the large fish they service. The fish at the cleaning station line up to get the parasites picked off them; they are cleaned and free from harmful, blood-sucking parasites and the cleaner wrasse gets a nice meal from the fish.
Both get something useful out of the deal, so the relationship is mutually beneficial. One gets a meal, the other gets cleaned.
Most animals are not capable of digesting cellulose, a material found in plant tissues, yet many animals eat plants. How are they able to do this? The answer is mutualism. Animals that eat plant matter house bacteria and protists in their digestive systems that are capable of breaking down the cellulose in the plant material they consume. Remora has long, flattened head and short body covered with smooth scales.
Remora has oval sucking disk on top of the head that consists of numerous paired, crosswise oriented plates. Sucking disk is actually modified dorsal fin.
Remora has numerous small, pointed teeth that are slightly curved inward. Lower jaw is longer than upper jaw. Remora does not have swimming bladder. It uses sucking disk to attach itself to the body of other fish or marine creatures and to travel in the ocean. This technique also ensures swift movement of water through the gills that is vital for the normal breathing. Depending on the species, remora can travel attached to the body of sharks, rays, swordfishes, marlins, sea turtles or large marine mammals such as dugongs and whales.
Remora eats leftovers of its host's meals and collects parasites, bacteria and dead, epidermal tissue from the surface of the skin. That way remora keeps the skin of its host clean and healthy. Some species of remora live inside the mouth of large sharks and rays.
Whale shark and remoras - Stock Image - C/ - Science Photo Library
They eat bacteria and scraps of food. Remoras are able to attach themselves to the bottom of the ships or to the legs and abdomen of scuba divers. Mating season of remoras takes place from June to July in the Atlantic ocean and from August to September in Mediterranean.