12 Classics-Character Relationships | stjohn
During the war Menelaus served under his elder brother Agamemnon, the commander in chief of the Greek forces. When Phrontis, one of his crewmen, was . Some of the main characters and their Relationships Achilles- Achilles didn't Achilles and Agamemnon dislike each other because Achilles feels http://www. jogglerwiki.info Achilles is angry when. Keywords Agamemnon – Menelaus – Atreidae – quarrel – Homer to do with the relationship between the two sons of Atreus, Agamemnon and Menelaus, him advice on managing the war or any other subject.3 Although Menelaus has a .
Calchas can be easily assassinated Blaiklock; Lawrence; Ryzman; Griffin Go where you wish. I will not perish for the sake of your Helen. Sparta belongs to you: I will govern Mycenae by my own right. Menelaus is eager to go to or from TroyAgamem- non is reluctant; Menelaus attempts to take command of the situation, and Agamemnon resists. There are fragments of an unidentified tragedian that have suggested to some a rendition of the quarrel of the Atreidae about the 33 Cf.
You, then, stay here in the land of Ida, gather the flocks of Olympus and make sacrifice.
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The sacrifice mentioned is presumably that with which Agamemnon hopes to assuage the wrath of Athena. If reconstructions of the latter two are reliable, then it can be said that in each of these three plays a quarrel between the Atre- idae took place in the first episode. Preiser84, n.
Agamemnon vs. Achilles in The Iliad: Relationship & Differences
As Rosivachnotes, in his demand that Ajax not be buried Menelaus seems at times to claim command of the army on an equal footing with his brother. Agamemnon shows clear affinities with the Agamemnon of the Iliad, so uncompromising in Book 1 but soon persuaded to a more flexible attitude by Nestor in Book 9; so here in the Ajax he is persuaded by Odysseus to yield.
Similarly, in each case it would appear that the quarrel of the Atreidae served little purpose except as a device to introduce the dramatic situ- ation. In the Nostoi, by contrast, the quarrel appeared early in the narra- tive, like the quarrel of Iliad Book 1, and must have been used by the poet to introduce his two most important characters, the basic dramatic situation, and any number of important themes for his work.
This again suggests that, with regard to the narrative and thematic function of the quarrel, the later epic may reflect a broader tradition that the tragedians had access to. As noted above, it presents a very different view of the Atreidae. Heathargues rather that the quarrel offered an occasion for Telephus to make his first appearance and to speak in defense of the Trojans.
Nevertheless, if the alternative view of the brothers can be traced back as an established tradi- tion already in the Odyssey and the Epic Cycle, we might expect to see some signs of this even within the Iliad. On the level of formula, Willcock argues that the traditional epithets of Menelaus seem to emphasize his prowess as a warrior, whereas the Menelaus of the Iliad does not distinguish himself in this realm. While the Iliad never shows the Atreidae actually quarreling, two of their three meetings feature an argument of sorts, albeit one in which Agamemnon is decidedly dominant while Menelaus offers no resistance: In Book 6, Agamemnon reproaches Menelaus when the latter is about to spare Achilles should not be confused by potential political challenges from another quarter.
The poet, evidently because he had a gentler view of the Trojans than his predecessors, used these formulas in a more restricted fashion, namely only as a feature of Achaean speech about the Trojans; this left something of a gap in the formulaic repertoire with which the poet himself describes them.
Similary, at Iliad 5. Or did you meet with the best treatment in your home from the Trojans?
It occurs again at Il. But it is you, oh great shameless one, we follow, so that you may be pleased, winning honor for Menelaus, and for you, dog-face, from the Trojans.
But this you do not notice, nor care for. Does the use of such a phrase highlight the separation of the brothers? Edwards87 on Il. Interestingly, the phrase under discussion appears in an interpolated verse at 9. In the case of 7. Similarly, in the line that follows we can see something semantically akin to 5. Hainsworthon Similarly, in Book 23, when Achilles proposes various athletic contests to the Achaeans, he addresses himself to the Achaeans once with the same line used by Nestor in Book 7 Yet there are two very interesting cases in which the singular vocative is not so obviously to be preferred.
The first example is from Book 7: After a difficult day of fighting and the defeat of Paris and Hector in duels with Menelaus and Ajax respectively, the Trojans hold an assembly: Which son of Atreus? Do we understand that Agamemnon is meant, since it is at his ship that the Achaeans are assembled, or Menelaus, since his wife and possessions are at issue, or Agamemnon again, since he is the true leader of the Achaean coalition? Line is clearly formulaic, being equivalent to 7.
It is Agamemnon who is addressed; yet this remains genuinely ambiguous for some moments after the speech introduction, and perhaps until the Achaean response. After a moment of awk- ward silence, Diomedes offers a rousing and contemptuous refusal that meets with general acclamation from the Achaeans.
Agamemnon - Wikipedia
Menelaus does not speak, and indeed never appears in the episode. The decision laid before the Achaeans by Idaios is precisely the type of decision that the Atreidae appear to have traditionally quarreled over, namely whether to stay or to go, whether to pursue the expedition or cut their losses, whether Helen is worth it after all.
In the ambiguity as to which of the Atreidae is to respond to the present proposal, or in the confusion as to why one rather than both is addressed, and perhaps in the moment of awkward silence before Diomedes speaks, the poet may well be playing with the expectations of an audience familiar with such traditions.
My second example is from Book One. First, the Achaeans generally, urging acceptance of the ransom and reverence for the priest Only then does Agamemnon speak, not with ratification of their view but with indignant refusal.
Menelaus does not speak at all, and indeed does not appear anywhere in Book 1. Various explanations have been offered for the fact that mnemosyne 67 22 sammons Chryses addresses his plea to the entire Achaean community;60 the fact that even his specific appeal is made not to Agamemnon alone, but to the Atre- idae as a team, seems never to have been explained.
There is a divine wrath affecting the whole of the army, to which Agamemnon responds in a particular way, and he is challenged by an adversary who threatens to present the case to an assembly of the Achaeans or actually does so.
What do these various stories imply about the characterization of the brothers and their relationship? We have on the one hand an iras- cible and aggressive Menelaus who is ever bent on immediate action, obvi- ously with the relentless aim of recovering Helen or bringing her home, hence reversing the disgrace he incurred with her elopement.
Menelaus in The Iliad: Characteristics & Traits
Here, Menelaus is mild-mannered, diffident, and entirely under the sway of his brother. There are also several passages within the Iliad, and aspects of its overall depiction of the Atreidae, that may ironically allude to the competing tradition. The basic narrative of the Iliad leaves little room for a quarrelsome, politically active Menelaus, since it reserves for Agamem- non a far more powerful—and more trenchantly quarrelsome—adversary, in the person of Achilles.
That it could also diverge between narrative traditions is a natural inference.
Although it goes beyond the scope of the present argument to posit innovative or untraditional elements in epic or elsewhere, it should also be clear enough how character- ization could be a particularly crucial area for the interplay of innovation and tradition, largely because it resides so much in the realm of nuance and stands outside of the concrete Faktenkanon.
Joel Lidov for his comments on an early draft. Poetarum Graecorum testimonia et fragmenta. Homer, Dichtung und Sage. The Male Characters of Euripides: The Failure of Speech: Rhetoric and Politics in the Iliad New York ——— The Wrath of Athena: Books Cambridge Ford, A.
Hippota Nestor Washington Gibert, J. Hippolytus and Iphigeneia in Aulis, in: Pel- lingHainsworth, B. Books Cambridge Handley, E. Finally I would like to thank the editor and staff of Mnemosyne for their help in bringing this work to light, and for a speedy and efficient process.
Books Cambridge Lange, K. Zeus in the Odyssey Washington Meyerhoff, D. Traditioneller Stoff und individuelle Gestaltung: The Best of the Achaeans: Geburtstag Stuttgart Robert, F. Brothers in the Night: Trojan War Menelaus regains Helen, detail of an Attic red-figure crater, c. According to legend, in a return for awarding her a golden apple inscribed "to the fairest," Aphrodite promised Paris the most beautiful woman in all the world.
After concluding a diplomatic mission to Sparta during the latter part of which Menelaus was absent to attend the funeral of his maternal grandfather Catreus in CreteParis ran off to Troy with Helen despite his brother Hector 's prohibition. Invoking the oath of TyndareusMenelaus and Agamemnon raised a fleet of a thousand ships and went to Troy to secure Helen's return; the Trojans refused, providing a casus belli for the Trojan War. Menelaus soundly beats Paris, but before he can kill him and claim victory, Aphrodite spirits Paris away inside the walls of Troy.
However, Athena never intended for Menelaus to die and she protects him from the arrow of Pandarus. Later, in Book 17, Homer gives Menelaus an extended aristeia as the hero retrieves the corpse of Patroclus from the battlefield. According to HyginusMenelaus killed eight men in the war, and was one of the Greeks hidden inside the Trojan Horse.Agamemnon: The Homecoming
Menelaus sought out Helen in the conquered city. Raging at her infidelity, he raised his sword to kill her, but as he saw her weeping at his feet, begging for her life, Menelaus' wrath instantly left him. He took pity on her and decided to take her back as wife. As happened to many Greeks, Menelaus' homebound fleet was blown by storms to Crete and Egypt where they were becalmed, unable to sail away. They trapped Proteusand forced him to reveal how to make the voyage home.