Miles to Go Before We Sleep: Racial Inequities in Health
May 21, Show Stars: Billy Burke (Miles Matheson), Tracy Spiridakos (Charlie Matheson), Gi- .. market has sprung up around an abandoned factory. Charlie's The relationship between Rachel and Gene remains strained as Char-. Apr 21, Billy Burke as Miles Matheson on NBC's “Revolution. . the power was turned off and what Rachel Matheson (Elizabeth Mitchell) knows about it. In the end, Miles' most important female relationship is with Charlie (Tracy The Australian · Checkout51 · News America Marketing · jogglerwiki.info · Unruly. Sep 25, Miles heads off in search of an old friend with Charlie in hot pursuit, while Aaron As far as relationship building in Revolution is concerned, everyone – estranged Matheson-clan included – is starting pretty much at rock this time in a market, in Pontiac, Illinois – Miles decides enough with the uncalled-for.
It also allows for Revolution to try and offer some insight into what the survivors of the blackout have been going through for the last 15 years. Nevertheless, Aaron and Maggie at least have a purpose now that exists beyond simply tagging along and staring in awe as Miles slays half a dozen men while in handcuffs. Charlie however, isn't so lucky; she's stuck playing No. As it turns out, the chain gang to which Nora's been sentenced is actually all part of her plan to retrieve a sniper rifle carried by the warden who's like a little homage to Boss Godfrey from Cool Hand Luke.
After Miles' rescue efforts actually stymie Nora's attempt to secure the weapon, it's up to Charlie to step up to the plate and become a more active member of the group beyond telling her uncle he can't kill all the guys he wants to kill.
In getting a hold of the sniper rifle, the trio manages to free the rest of the militia's chain gang, and in doing so, further illustrate the scope of the ongoing conflict between the Monroe Militia and the rebellion hoping to restore the United States. It's in the reaction of Neville Giancarlo Esposito to the presence of the American flag in the home of the gun owner's that the series' larger, more interesting narrative thread is revealed.
After a while and possibly already the question of how the lights went out and whywill not be enough to fuel interest in the show and its characters' quest. So, it gets real dicey and interesting there. How has the concept of the show affected the way you feel about your dependence on electronics? Has it altered it, at all?
Yeah, we think about it a lot and we talk about it. In the initial stages, in the first few months of making the show, we talked about it a lot. The reality is that you never really know what you would do, but you start to realize how much you do rely on it. We are so reliant on power and technology for everything. My answer to that is recorded music. I can do without a television or a telephone, I think. Third, there is declining interest in and support for policies to address racial inequalities among whites in the U.
Both whites who voted for President Obama and those who did not indicate that there is less need to address racial inequality in the U. In striking contrast, the evidence reviewed here document the persistence of inequality and discrimination and suggest that anti-discrimination programs may be crucial for ensuring racial equality. Research is needed to identify effective communication strategies to create the conditions for change.
First we need to increase awareness of the magnitude and consequences of racial inequalities in health. Second, there is a need to change the hearts and minds of the American public.
The social patterning of awareness of social inequalities in health suggest that more than knowledge is needed. Political ideology is associated with knowledge of health disparities with liberals being three times as likely as conservatives to be aware of racial and SES gaps in health Booske et al.
Education was also positively associated with knowledge.
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In addition, most of the U. Many fewer see social and economic factors such as employment, level of education, housing quality and community safety as important determinants of health. Individuals who were politically liberal, minority group members, older and of low SES were more likely to endorse the importance of social factors Robert and Booske Enhancing Emotional Affect Research is also needed to identify how best to enhance emotional identification with racial disparities and to build empathy and support to address them.
The Frameworks Institute has done pioneering work on the dominant frames about race that are activated by the mention of racial disparities Davey These dominant frames include the beliefs that U.
This research has found that several framing strategies that are widely used such as framing diversity as a strength, arguing that disparities for minorities were early warning indicators canaries in a coal mineor claiming that disparities reflect white privilege or are structurally driven were all ineffective Davey In each of these cases, the dominant racial framing obscures an alternative viewpoint.
In contrast, framings that work are those that focused less on racial disparities and emphasized widely shared American values like enhancing opportunity for all and ingenuity and that link communities in a sense of shared fate. Specifically, frames that gave primacy to effective solutions and innovation, emphasized opportunity for all, highlighted the interdependence of all communities, stressed preventing community problems before they occurred, and emphasized fairness not between individuals but between places all have the potential to build support for addressing disparities.
The finding that minorities and low SES persons were among the most knowledgeable about social factors suggests that experience plays an important role in providing knowledge Robert and Booske This highlights the importance of narrative approaches that enable socially advantaged individuals to envision and sympathize with the harsh realities of disadvantaged individuals and situations. The strong public endorsement of the role of individual action also suggests the necessity of simultaneous attention to personal responsibility with social action and initiatives to reduce some of the barriers that make it extremely difficult for many Americans to make healthy choices.
However, several lines of evidence highlight the potential of at least some types of medical care to improve health and reduce social inequalities in health. First, primary care, with its emphasis on preventive care and the early management of disease is associated with lower total costs of health services, better health at the individual and population level and smaller social disparities in health Starfield, Shi, and Macinko Third, the receipt of medical safety net services is associated with better health.
A recent study that randomized uninsured residents to apply for Medicaid services found that, one year later, the treatment group had higher use of health care services including primary and preventive carelower out-of-pocket medical expenses, lower medical debt and financial stress, and better self-reported physical and mental health than the control group Finkelstein et al. Fourth, international evidence provides further examples of the potential of medical care to improve the health of vulnerable populations.
Access to primary care is a likely major contributor to the unexpectedly good health profiles of Cuba and Costa Rica Starfield et al.
Similarly, with a comprehensive and innovative preventive health care system TavassoliIran has erased a two-fold elevated risk of infant mortality in rural areas compared to urban ones Aghajanian et al. Efforts are currently underway to apply the Iranian model to address the unmet health care needs in Mississippi, Arkansas and Louisiana Bristol Other research from Iran indicates that that medical care alone is not a panacea.
Although increased access to health care led to declines in child and maternal mortality and increases in life expectancy at birth, the low birthweight rate has not declined Jafari et al. The study found that the determinants of low birthweight were low SES and material deprivation. The bottom-line is that 40, people die in the U.
More Systematic and Rigorous Evaluation of Social Policies Research has also given inadequate attention to the effects, positive and negative, that changes in social policies can have on health. There is limited but compelling evidence that reducing social inequalities can reduce health inequalities.
Research reveals that the improvements in SES that were associated with the Civil Rights Movement led to improved health status for the black population. Civil Rights policies narrowed the black-white economic gap with the gains being greater for women than for men Kaplan, Ranjit, and Burgard In turn, the gains in life expectancy for working-age black women during exceeded those of other race and sex groups and were three times as large as those in the prior decade Kaplan et al.
Another study documented that between anda period during which the racial gap in income declined as a result of the Civil Rights movement and anti-poverty policy, black males and females, agedhad larger absolute and relative declines in mortality than whites Cooper et al. Other research has documented that changes in social policies during the Civil Rights era linked to hospital desegregation, the advent of Medicaid and food stamps led to a reduction in the black-white gap in infant mortality in southern states between the mids to the early s and to substantially lower risk factor rates for the adult women who benefited from them Almond, Chay, and Greenstone ; Almond and Chay These policies also had intergenerational benefits with the women who benefited from them being less likely to give birth to infants with low-birth weight and low APGAR scores.
As the income of blacks fell relative to that of whites during the decade of the s, racial disparities in health worsened for multiple indicators Williams and Collins For example, the life expectancy for blacks declined from the level for 5 years in a row while the life expectancy of whites increased slightly during this period.
Miles to Go Before We Sleep: Racial Inequities in Health
Research from New Zealand also indicates that Maori-non Maori gaps in mortality between and narrowed and widened with a five year lag in tandem with social in equalities Tobias et al. A recent study using cross-sectional data for 50 states for a year period documented that states with more generous spending on education, more progressive taxation systems and more humane lenient TANF and Medicaid program rules had better overall population health Kim and Jennings with the effects being stronger for overall mortality than for infant mortality.
Future research should assess more specific aspects of social welfare programs and identify the conditions under which they have consequences for specific indicators of health.
We need to focus not just on the existence of a policy or intervention but also on the fidelity with which it is implemented. Attention should also be given to the possibility of differential effects by race, ethnicity and SES.
Family structure is shaped by larger economic conditions and single motherhood in turn has negative effects on economic mobility McLanahan and Percheski Black men in the military earn more than their civilian peers and the command and control, bureaucratic structure of the military has created a more race-blind environment than the larger society Teachman Military benefits include family housing, day care centers, and school-age activity centers.
Research reveals that active duty military service promotes marriage over cohabitation, increases the likelihood of first marriage, and leads to greater stability of marriage and that these effects are greater for blacks than for whites Teachman ; Teachman ; Teachman and Tedrow Thus, access to employment, opportunities for economic mobility and other social and economic resources can eliminate disparities in marriage and promote health.
Some limited evidence also suggests that positive race-related events can also enhance the health of disadvantaged racial groups. A national panel study of U.