In addressing this problem, the study aims to understand the relationship between architecture and music, investigate the nature of this. There is similarity between music and architecture. The architectural Proportion is relationship between parts; in music it is . nature always promote creativity. aesthetics in music and architecture, which has achieved the high relationship with nature and himself, or in other words, traversing the.
As shown in figure 1. This study examines the relationship between two diverse fields, architecture and music, in an attempt to reflect on the reading of an architectural project with the aim of decoding graphic signs and motivations, whether they be expressed or implicit, conscious or unconscious and which are part of a group of symbolic memories. As earlier stated, these very symbols exist in other fields of knowledge as well but are expressed differently.
Retrieved September 25th, at hrs from http: In understanding the compositional similarities and differences of African music and architecture, we are able to deeply understand the application of various principles, such as rhythm, harmony, proportion and texture which are all building blocks in the creation of metaphor in a building.
The careful composition of form and space based on those principles creates symbolic value in architecture. These principles are shared by both music and architecture and knowledge on the composition of meaningful music will be useful in informing the architectural design process. The understanding of this relationship will also open up more creative possibilities for the architect. An interdisciplinary approach to design enhances creativity. Involvement with other arts creates some distance between the constraints of reality and helps create the frame of mind necessary to create meaningful work.
As music is one of the more expressive and communicative arts, an analysis of its tools and methods is likely to open up possibilities for the creation of an architecture that is culturally level and that has an identity. The study will give insight into parallel principles occuring between architecture and music, highlighting how these principles are applied in communication of various messages in both fields with the aim of learning from the other field.
This will aid architects in not just conceptualisation, using music as inspiration, but in actual design given a new understanding of the principles of composition. The traditional drums were played atop the hill when a new law came into effect. Besides the symbolic value, the strong rhythm of the drums stands for communication and continuity.
Each drum represents a symbolic value we also can find in the Ethiopian flag: Hope greenpeace yellow and passion red. The case studies are limited to projects where the architect has explicity declared and discussed the application of music in their particular work irregardless of geographical location.
The limitations the study might encounter are: The body of knowledge on the relationship between music and architecture is of differing opinions making it hard to get conclusive statements on factual issues. Inability to find adequate information on the music of the Mijikenda in the form of transcribed works.
Financial and time constraints in the expected frequent visits to the case studies. Viable case studies were few and not from Africa as not many buildings have explicitly used music in design. Qualitative research methods, aimed at describing, exploring and discovering more about this relationship, where it applies and where it does not, will then be applied to the selected community. The music and architecture of the Mijikenda will be studied broadly and their overlapping characteristics identified and further discussed.
Theoretical analysis is the foremost research method. This involves selection and discussion of theoretical material and descriptive material in context followed by a detailed comparison of theories in terms of their applicability. Case study survey is the other method applied in this research. This involves visit to the sites of interest to observe and document the data required pertinent to the music and architecture of the Mijikenda. International case studies will be used in answering the third research question.
This will involve sourcing of secondary information from books and websites regarding the projects discussed. The image captures the interior of this building showing the beams above the axis of continuity that leads into the permanent exhibition. The problem, which is placelessness and lack of information on how to abstract from cultural sources, specifically music is outlined. The objectives and questions guiding the research are also defined in this chapter as well as the methods that will be applied in the carrying out of the study.
It consists of arguments from different literary sources shedding light on the key concepts that are shared between the two fields and their interpretation in either field and then subsequently the relationship and how others have interpreted these similarities. It involves a discussion on the spaces and forms found in Mijikenda culture as well as how they express themselves through music. This is followed by a comparison of the main compositional principles found in these two fields so as to establish whether or not their attitude towards their creation of music was in any way connected to that of the creation of their architecture.
CHAPTER FIVE is a case study analysis of international case studies selected because of their application of musical concepts to architectural forms in an attempt to understand how to abstract and apply the concepts discussed in chapter two and four to architectural form.
CHAPTER SIX concludes the study stating the conclusions drawn from the findings of the study and making recommendations on how these concepts can be applied to architecture as well as opportunities for further study. A simple outline of the organisation of the study. Author, February 4th, 21 1. Pitch - the highness or lowness of a particular sound. A pitched sound 2. A symbol representing pitch and duration of a musical sound.
Staff - five lines and four spaces on which musical notes are written on indicating their pitch.
Chord - a series of three or more notes that combine to produce a pleasing and concordant sound. Harmony -The quality of forming a pleasing and consistent whole, in music through combination of simulateously produced notes to form chords that are pleasing and in architecture by achieveing a unified balance of parts Beat - The basic unit of time in music Metre - The number of beats per measure of equal time in music. Rhythm - A strong regular repeated pattern of movement or sound, in music, usually according to duration and periodic stress.
Polyrhythm - the simultaneous combination of contrasting rhythms in a musical composition. Acoustics - the properties or qualities of a room or building that determine how sound is transmitted in it. Ornamentation - the action of decorating something or making it more elaborate; in music using rapid notes above the written music. Retrieved February 4th, at hrs from http: Every moment, sounds keep us informed about the happenings around us.
The patter of rain, the meow of a cat, the whistling of the wind, the wail of sirens, the clap of thunder and other such sounds keep us informed about our constantly changing environment.
Silence, which is the absence of sound, serves also to communicate. An unanswered question or a break off midsentence communicates as does the absence of noise on a street which communicates desertion. Chedd delineates the science of sound stating that sound originates from the vibration of a body or object. The vibration creates a sound wave, which is transmitted through a medium- often air-to our ears, causing the eardrum to vibrate. The vibrations send off impulses to the brain where they are interpreted.
Music is a pleasant sound, arranged and organised to provide delight unlike other incidental environmental sounds. The amplitude is the maximum displacement of an oscillation measured from the point of equilibrium. The frequency is the number of vibrations per second. Frequency determines the pitch of the sound, that is, the highness of lowness of the sound. The higher the frequency, the higher the pitch of the sound produced.
Musical sounds differ from noises because they are composed of regular vibrations as opposed to noises, which are disordered, irregular vibrations. Musical tones are sounds of specific frequencies that reach the ear at regular time intervals. Music, according to Kamien is the art of organizing sounds in time. These sounds are organized based on their pitch to a certain rhythm which communicates a certain message and has a bearing on the emotions and behavior of people.
Ancient tribal societies used music as a foundation for gatherings and to express their history, ethnicity, and cultural beliefs.
Music has changed throughout the ages, but the use of music as an essential part of cultural and individual expression has changed very little. There were times when entire generations or cultures of individuals each knew the same songs. During World War II, entire nations of people sang songs that expressed their national identity with their cause and their connection to their fighting forces.
And, as music as a form of expression has grown, different individuals within the same society have come to identify with varying forms of music as their own individual expression of self. The subculture is largely characterized by anti-establishment views and the promotion of individual freedom. Whether music is viewed as being an influence on youth or as being influenced by youth, is still secondary to the fact that it has always been present as a socializing factor.
Whether that socialization takes place as a part of a group membership or as a way to express individuality, there is no way to ignore the fact that the influence and expression of music expands as the world community shares more of its musical styles. People may find that music speaks to them in a certain way, moves them in a certain way, or that they identify with its message.
People may also find that they can use music to express themselves as individuals as well as to conform to a group.
Doubtless, music and its connection to individual and group identity will take on new forms as people continue to be exposed to varying forms of music and culture.
Retrieved February 8th, at hrs from http: They were considered at one with nature and with God. At the time the generation of architecture was purely mathematical and precise, as it was believed that beauty was closely linked to mathematics-as held out by Plato.
In the renaissance, architects such as Alberti and Palladio used music in the clarifying of architectural concepts. Aesthetics and beauty were closely tied in with mathematics. As all sciences and arts were assumed to have departed from mathematics, musical harmonies were determined by mathematical calculation. Alberti then applied the harmonic proportions used in the music of the time to the designing of his buildings resulting in proper balance and harmony with the environment.
Antoniades points out that with the passage of time, the relationship between the two arts has become vague as proportioning systems became less mathematically precise.
The principles that we apply in designing modern architecture are still very closely linked with those that are used in the composition of music and proper understanding and creative use of the relationship would lead to a great benefit to the field of architecture. Mahmoud outlines the possibilities of cross fertilization in these two fields as being pertinent to either proportion, rhythm, acoustics, synaesthesia and deconstruction. Each of these will be discussed in detail.
MUTUAL RELATION BETWEEN MUSIC AND ARCHITECTURE | Amr F G - jogglerwiki.info
Ultimately, this is the obscure objective of all creative practices. In music, harmony is conceived and perceived as a pleasant unification of different sounds. Kamien Balance in music is detected by hearing two different notes played together simultaneously giving a pleasant concordant sound. In architecture, we assume that the sense of balance that we perceive is based on sight and visual appreciation, the most obvious form of balance being symmetry. However, in the real sense, the inner ear is the centre of balance in the body.
Balance lies within the inner ear and balance in all art forms is perceived at this centre. Liebeskind, Early thinkers sought to solve the mystery of the harmony that pervades the universe. Rasmussen retells the legend of how Pythagoras stumbled upon the discovery of harmonic proportion. On investigation, he discovered that the lengths of the hammer heads were related to each other in the ratio of 6: The largest produced the keynote tonic the shorter was a fifth above and the shortest an octave above it.
When a string is vibrated it produces a certain pitch. When the string is divided in exactly half, it produces a sound of the same pitch but an octave higher. When the string is divided into 3 parts and the string held at the two-third interval, the string produces a sound that is an interval of a fifth higher than the initial pitch.
In architecture, Ching defines harmony as the orderly, pleasing or congruent arrangement of the elements or parts in an artistic whole.
Harmony in architecture is achieved through proportion. Proportion is the visual relationships of various objects and spaces that make up a whole. It is important that these relationships are in harmony to each other, and give a sense of balance to the overall composition. The essence of rhythm, as Kamien puts forth is a recurring pattern of expectation and fulfillment. Frequency determines pitch of a sound. Pitch is the highness or lowness of a sound.
Floors, slabs and curtain walls Fig 3: The inner effect A- Architect: After that he practiced architecture, that effect remains dominating on his soul. So his cultural background is clearly reflected on his ideas accordingly.
That opera is an unfinished symphony because of assassination of the German maestro during the Second World War. The identification of this architect is Jewish, so his religious attitudes made him more interested by this opera, which represents the great story of the two Hebrew prophets.
Therefore, he put a zigzag line to imitate the formation of melodies and the sequence of raising waves in the unfinished opera. So, we determine an abstracted fact that, the music has mutual affection with the inside spirit of architecture and probably that, some users could be unable to understand that design-fact.
Hollein opted to convert the caverns concealed in the mountain into exhibition areas. The visitor climbs laterally up the cliff to an excavation 20 meters wide and 40 meters high e. Stairs lead first to halls inside the caverns, then to the large exhibition spaces, inundated by light, on the upper side. Model of interior www. Magical Flute of Mozart www. The outer effect 1- Architect: K The second prize winner of the architectural competition The architectural ideas of the Italian architect Manfredi Nicoletti are represented as direct influence of the renowned Italian operas.
Therefore, we can see that effect in the external formation of his projects as the following example: Sea Wave — Sound Wave, The fluttering hands of a violinist. This is the idea for the transparent Wave roof which shelters and protects the City of Music, creating a new covered piazza, a materialization of music and water. Under the Wave, a new animated cityscape extends the Cardiff Bay urban fabric: The fascinating social custom of seeing and being seen — a delightful characteristic of European piazzas and opera houses — is thus revived.
The glass anodized aluminum carapace of the Wave, specially protected to resist the aggressive maritime environment, will decrease the wear on the City of Music and any associated maintenance.
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Furthermore, it allows for an extremely compact scheme, minimizing the length of all internal connections and increasing the interior flexibility of the whole ensemble.
Then, forms were created in tremindous harmony as an orcestra played by several instruments. The outer surfaces reflect music symphony played throurh specific organization of the architectural elements as in musical note. The design explained an individual experience for each user by walking into the museum spaces, Figure Thus the external musical melodies shape of every space was created www.
The Experience Music Project combines interactive musical experiences with educational exhibits. Acoustically, the project was extremely complex due in part to the constantly curving interior surface of Frank Gehry's architecture and to the programmatic requirement of allowing visitors to freely move between exhibits.
Exhibits were designed to allow visitors to participate in the creative process of music- making—such as learning to play a guitar or being part of a jam session. Acoustic separation between the galleries and individual exhibits was needed but such sound isolation had to be achieved without walls, doors or any other traditional means of acoustical control that would also create barriers to the flow of visitors. Russ Todd was the project manager and acoustical designer while a senior consultant at JHS Acoustics.
Drums Saxophone Piano www. Analyzing created architectural products which are designed by the musical harmony inside the computer simulation program. However, what we have to stress upon in this respect, is the real effect of music in creating the process of renovation the architectural design methods. The possibilities of data visualization offered by the digital medium in the domain of sonicvisual and spatial shapes as well as multiple forms of mapping one medium into another.
The cyberspaces became the wide ground which, lead us easily to the top aesthetics in formation of the architectural products in a very short time. This process is called the virtual reality. Further more, a few architects have entering a further dimension called the fifth dim. The leader of those architects is a British called Marcos Novak who named it the fifth virtuality. The musical melodies have, therefore, appeared in a new frame, as explained in the next pages: The parametric equations governing each surface were arranged so that a variation on a particular surface would cause reactions or permutations on adjoining surfaces, effectively creating a topological cube.
The parametric cuboid was manipulated to create two forms: The skeleton was then mathematically extruded into the fourth dimension by adding a fourth coordinate to every three dimensional point. Thus, points became lines, lines became polygons, and polygons became cubes and cubes became hyper-cubes. The resulting four- Figure The skin was not extruded into the fourth dimension but instead remapped to create a rippling, non- homogeneous surface.