❤ Five Love Languages Quiz: Which One Do You Speak?
As already stated, relationship-based practice is not a new phenomenon (Ruch, ). Relationships are central to social work practice but are shaped by the. The idea that the love in your relationship has expired is a difficult thought for one to stomach. When love turns into hate and fondness into. British Journal of Social Work, 43(4), , pp This article discusses the conceptualisation of relationship-based practice from a person-centred point of view and its applicability to contemporary social work. person-centred care, social work, social work theories, self.
Behavioral activation encourages clients to engage in pleasurable or mastery e. Implementing behavioral activation early in therapy is likely to result in improved mood and higher levels of energy. Clients then identify an activity that they would like to increase e. Throughout the intervention, clients are asked to complete an Activity Schedule, where activities are systematically recorded until they become more habitual.
Social skills training includes the teaching and practice of basic communication and verbal skills e. When providing this training, therapists must consider the variability in social expression e. CBT uses a general problem-solving format that is distinct from problem solving as a stand-alone treatment.
The problem solving process begins with identifying and naming a specific problem e.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
During this process clients are encouraged to consider the idea of change and how to promote change. The therapist and client collectively generate a variety of possible strategies without initial evaluation of the approaches in order to think broadly and creatively about potential solutions.
The optimal strategy is selected and its implementation is discussed in detail e. The client then implements the selected strategy as homework. Finally, the client and therapist evaluate the outcome of the problem-solving strategy.
If the problem was solved, they move to the next issue. Therapists can teach clients to use several different types of relaxation training, including progressive muscle relaxation, breathing retraining, autogenic relaxation, and visualization exercises Jacobson,; Wolpe, Exposure encourages clients to confront a feared stimulus e. More recent, Craske, Kircanski, Zelikowsky, Mystkowski, Chowdhury, and Bakernoting that fear levels at the time of exposure have not been shown to be reliable indicators of learning, have posited the evocation of inhibitory learning and fear toleration as shown at episodes of reexposure.
Effective exposure typically produces feelings of moderate anxiety intensity and should not produce extreme or overwhelming anxiety.
Practice should occur both in-session and outside of sessions as part of homework. Cognitive Restructuring CBT clinicians use cognitive restructuring to help clients become aware of the connection between their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. Cognitive restructuring consists of intervention strategies to help clients recognize, evaluate, and effectively respond to dysfunctional, negative, or distorted thoughts. The intervention strategies commonly employed during cognitive restructuring are described below.
Identification of problematic thoughts: Cognitive behavioral therapists must help clients develop an awareness of their dysfunctional or negative thoughts before they can employ interventions to change these thoughts. A daily dysfunctional thought record DTR; Beck et al. The DTR includes columns in which clients can record situations e.
Later in treatment, clients are often given another version of the DTR that includes columns in which alternative more adaptive thoughts and behavioral outcomes are recorded as well.
Because identifying and recording dysfunctional and negative thoughts can be challenging for clients, their abilities and skill levels must be considered.
Therapists must be sure that clients clearly understand the linkage between their thoughts and responses before encouraging them to engage in thought recording. Once clients have identified and recorded their negative thoughts, clinicians can help clients identify cognitive distortions and discuss them.
Driven by core beliefs, assumptions, or schemas, cognitive distortions interact with situational facts or circumstances, leading to automatic thoughts and situation-specific thinking Beck, It is common for therapists and clients to review a list of cognitive distortions together.
The dysfunctional thought record DTRdescribed above, can be modified to include an additional column where clients name the cognitive distortions underlying their negative and dysfunctional thoughts. Reality testing and Socratic questioning.
To counter cognitive distortions and negative or dysfunctional thoughts, CBT encourages clients to evaluate their thoughts through empirical hypothesis testing. Thoughts are viewed as hypotheses, rather than facts, and therefore can be questioned and challenged. Reality testing refers to intervention strategies that offer opportunities for clients to compare their thoughts to the actual evidence.
One of the most straightforward strategies for countering negative thoughts and distortions is simply asking clients to examine the evidence e. Therapists use Socratic questioning Beck et al. It introduces data that does not fully support or is inconsistent with the original thought, and it may inform an alternative explanation for events Beck et al.
Clients who have cognitive distortions or negative, dysfunctional thoughts often falsely attribute the cause of certain events or situations. It is common for clients to relate events and situations to themselves and to blame themselves for perceived negative outcomes associated with events or situations.
Three well-recognized dimensions of attributions are locus internal v. For example, someone with depression may have the tendency to make internal, stable, and global attributions for failure e. CBT seeks to assist clients in recognizing and addressing attributional biases. Once clients are able to recognize attributional biases, they can compare their thoughts to factual evidence.
Reattributional pie charts may be used to address attribution biases. First, the clinician and client construct a pie chart reflecting the factors that the client believes contributed to an event or situation usually a negative one. Next, other potential causes of the event or situation are identified. The clinician asks the client whether any other factors may help to explain the situation or if any additional information may be important to consider.
Finally, the pie chart is modified to reflect this reattribution. Clients with cognitive distortions and negative or dysfunctional thoughts may predict negative futures and create self-fulfilling prophecies. This is particularly common among clients with anxiety.
Results of the evaluation are used to challenge negative or unrealistic expectations. The evaluation process involves hypothesis testing implemented through homework. Clients are first asked to clearly identify their predictions.
Which Personality Type is Your Love Match?
Next clients collect evidence as part of homework. The downward arrow is a common CBT strategy used to address implications of specific negative thoughts to help identify strongly held beliefs or catastrophic fears Beck et al. Clinicians ask a series of questions about the meaning that clients attach to their thought until the client has no additional responses: Alternative thoughts can be introduced by the client, the therapist, or collaboratively.
Clients may be asked to generate alternative thoughts after evaluating and reviewing evidence related to their original problematic thoughts. If clients have difficulty coming up with alternatives, therapists can offer suggestions for the client to consider. After an alternative thought has been identified, the advantages of both the original and the alternative thought are evaluated.
The evaluation process often includes an assessment of the negative thought and the alternative response e. Clinicians may also ask clients to consider how they would advise a friend with this type of thinking. We then challenge the assumption that relationship-based social work founded on the person-centred approach legitimately supports service users' ability and capacity towards self-determination.
Our challenge is based on the premise that the person-centred approach is defined by principled non-directive practice. On this basis, we conclude that a person-centred relationship-based approach to contemporary social work is untenable.The 4 Temperaments
Person-centred approachactualising tendencynon-directivitysocial work Introduction Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in the professional and academic discourse in the concept of social work as a relationship-based approach to helping Ruch et al. This is reflected most recently and arguably most influentially with the publication of the Interim Report of the Monro Committee into Child Protection Monro, At first glance, it seems reasonable to emphasise the social worker and service user relationship as intrinsic to successful practice.
As such, the turn towards a relational approach has highlighted the need to provide a clarification as to what can and cannot be considered a valid and genuine relational approach to social work. Social workers often align themselves philosophically with the person-centred approach originally developed by Carl Rogers in the s and s.
For instance, Wilson, Ruch, Lymbery and Cooper refer to the therapeutic relationship conditions of empathy, unconditional positive regard and genuineness described by Rogers as essential communication skills for carrying out good-quality social work practice.
As such, it might be assumed that social work is a person-centred practice. However, the aim of this paper is to show that the epistemological position of person-centred theory is largely incompatible with social work practice. First, we provide a detailed introduction to the key concepts in person-centred theory.
This will present a challenge to the understanding that person-centred psychology can be integrated into social work practices and expose a major ideological split between person-centred psychology and contemporary statutory social work practice. Second, the impact of the changing context of statutory social work practice will be explored through a discussion of the effects of risk management, managerialism, bureaucratisation, consumerism and individualisation upon the social work profession.
The implications for social work practice are considered. Third, in light of the above, the central issue of whether it is possible to have a truly person-centred approach to social work practice is discussed, concluding that principled person-centred relationships can have no place in an instrumental relationship-based approach to practice as is common in contemporary social work.
Within the fields of counselling, psychology and psychotherapy, relationship-based approaches to personal change are widely used.
However, there are a variety of relationship-based approaches. Two of the main approaches to relationship-based practice are those derived from psycho-dynamic and person-centred understandings, respectively, of human nature and personal change Joseph, On the surface, each of these approaches may look similar in practice insofar as they involve two or more people talking, with one person labelled as the helper and the other as the person being helped.
However, as we will go on to show, each of these forms of relationship-based practice is based on different and mutually exclusive fundamental theoretical assumptions Joseph and Linley, Consequently, there are a number of theoretical questions to be answered regarding the compatibility of some relationship-based approaches with social work principles and with the reality of social work roles and tasks. For example, social work practice broadly relates to the help provided by professionals to enable people to live with greater success in realising their potential within the communities they live by being focussed on finding solutions to their problems.
In the light of these definitions, it would seem reasonable to conclude that the implication of a relational approach to social work is that the social worker—service user relationship is viewed as a central and key component of bringing about change.
The role of, and the extent to which, the relationship between the social worker and service user is considered to be directly responsible for change is dependent upon the theoretical underpinnings that inform the nature and scope of the helping relationship.
As already noted, two relationship-based approaches are the psycho-dynamic and person-centred. Within the former category, the therapist is implicitly positioned as the expert, in possession of the power and control over the outcome of the encounter.
In the latter, the relationship is based on principles and values such as unconditional positive regard, mutuality and dialogue. Here, the therapist and the client have the potential for experiencing each other as full human beings where the client is considered the expert and is free to determine their chosen path and the outcomes of the encounter.
Thus, whether relationship-based practice in social work is defined from the stance of the psycho-dynamic or the person-centred approach is not a trivial issue. This presents a difficulty for social workers as they try to reconcile the tensions between holding true to the British Association of Social Work BASW values and fulfilling their responsibilities as experts in the assessment of the safety and capability of people to remain in control of their own lives.
For example, on the one hand, many social workers might feel most comfortable and consider themselves and their practice to fall into the latter category of person-centred relationship-based practice—that is to say, in holding true to the social work value of respect for service user autonomy, placing the meeting of needs as they are expressed by service users at the fore and where the relationship is the process whereby they facilitate the identification and understanding of these needs.
Whilst this model appreciates the complexity of working in a relationship-based approach, the epistemological position is one consistent with the psycho-analytic and systemic theory. However, it is important to recognise what this means from a meta-theoretical stance and how it differs from the person-centred approach.
We argue that this is a rather narrow view of what relationship-based practice could be, but it is necessarily narrow due to the basic argument that social work practice is not able to hold true to the value and principle of respecting service users' autonomy and right to self-determination. In the following sections, we will develop the above argument to show why it is not possible for contemporary social work to be grounded in the person-centred approach.
Key concepts in person-centred theory As already noted, many social workers have aligned themselves philosophically with the person-centred approach. While relationship-based practice has meant various things in social work over the years, it is this notion that lies at the heart of contemporary discussions within social work about relationship-based practice and of the social causes of mental distress Tew, that we will argue creates an ideological split.
Person-centred theory and social work have a shared history that is not always apparent, particularly in the current positioning of person-centred social work. Carl Rogers, the founder of person-centred therapy, was for a time based in Rochester, New York, and influenced by a number of practitioners under the guidance of Otto Rank.
Two social workers, Jesse Taft and Frederick Allen, had been working using relationship therapy that was based on non-directive principles. KirschenbaumRogers's biographer, suggested that Jesse Taft was the person who probably had the greatest influence on the development of Rogers's theories.
Such was the significance of this influence, Ellingham suggested that the therapeutic casework carried out by Taft in the s and Rogers original form of the non-directive therapeutic approach were essentially one and the same. However, despite these origins of the person-centred approach and the seemingly close link with social work, we would argue there is now a serious misunderstanding of the relationship between the two.
Currently, it seems that, within the social work field e. However, to work in a truly person-centred way means that these relationship qualities are embraced for a specific theoretical reason.
As such, and to avoid continuing the apparent confusion regarding the potential for a person-centred relational approach to social work, there is a need for a clear articulation of the theory underlying the person-centred approach.
The most important aspect of theory is the idea of the actualising tendency. Actualising tendency, the theoretical foundation stone of the person-centred approach, is the idea of human potentiality. The central theoretical construct is the actualising tendency. The actualising tendency is a universal human motivation, which, given the right social—environmental conditions, results in growth, development and autonomy of the individual Rogers, In short, people are intrinsically motivated towards growth, development and autonomous and socially integrated functioning.
Which Personality Type is Your Love Match?
But this motivation is moderated by extrinsic social—environmental factors. Thus, the term actualising tendency implies the tendency for people to proactively grow, develop and move towards autonomous and socially integrated functioning, when the social—environmental conditions are optimal. However, when the social environment is not optimal, the tendency towards growth is thwarted so that people's development is distorted in ways that can result in the person moving towards a negative, socially destructive direction and typical of the many of the problem areas social workers encounter in engagement with service users.
It is unusual for people to experience such optimal social environments that they might be said to have self-actualised as fully functioning and so most people experience to a greater or lesser extent some degree of psychological dysfunctionality see Joseph and Worsley, Person-centred psychotherapy is based on the above theoretical understanding that people are intrinsically motivated to grow and develop in the direction of becoming more fully functioning, when the right social environmental conditions are present Rogers, In describing the right social environmental conditions, Rogers proposed that there were six necessary and sufficient relational conditions that, when present, led to constructive personality development.
Most social workers will, as noted above, be familiar with the three conditions of unconditional positive regard, empathy and congruence, but it is important to note that there were six conditions that, taken together, described the facilitative social environment.
The other three essential conditions are that there must also be psychological contact between the therapist and the client, the client must be in a state of incongruence and distressed in some way, and finally the communication to the client of the therapist's empathic understanding and unconditional positive regard must at least minimally be achieved.
Rogers paper on relational factors was an integrative statement of common factors thought to be both necessary and sufficient to promote therapeutic outcome.
Thus, the person-centred practitioner endeavours to create a relational environment defined by the six conditions because it is this that is necessary to activate constructive personal change.
The understanding is that the client is the expert on their own experience and needs and will develop in a socially constructive direction when these six relationship conditions are present.
Thus, the person-centred practitioner's sole task is to provide a growthful relationship on the understanding that the client will be facilitated in such a relationship to make new socially constructive choices about the direction of his or her life.
As such, the person-centred practitioner adopts a non-directive attitude in which they have no pre-determined and specific outcomes or intentions for the service user to achieve.
Rogers used the term non-directivity, but this term, which is often misunderstood, was clarified by Grantwho distinguished between principled non-directivity and instrumental non-directivity.