Task-oriented and relationship-oriented leadership - Wikipedia
Relationship-Oriented Leadership Style on Leader-Member Exchange . Task- oriented leadership is a behavioral approach, in which the leader focuses on the .. exchange and political skill on subjective carrier success. In contrast, relationship-oriented leaders effected greater cohesion between the group's . task behavior and relationship behavior of the group leader on the skills members bring to the team, a leader can facilitate team effectiveness by. Task-oriented leaders should take steps to add people skills to their repertoire. Even if the behaviors do not come naturally, adopting the techniques of.
The relations-oriented behaviour of the principal in school A enabled her to win the trust of the school actors. Teacher 2 states her views on trusting her principal by saying: I like that because we have 50 teachers and you have to have this character.
However, the leadership approach of ensuring task accomplishment within academic areas was delegated to the vice principal. The strategy of a relations-oriented leadership approach to retain constancy during a time of change was practised by the principal, while task-oriented behaviour was delegated to the vice principal in order to ensure task accomplishment.
Leadership behavioural style leaping school forward case of school B Batagiannis For Currie and Lockettthe four components of transformational leadership are charisma, inspiration, individual consideration, and intellectual stimulation. These transformational leadership components are supported by leadership flexibility that enables relevant and adaptive behaviour with respect to task or relations. Task- and relations-oriented behaviours are not mutually exclusive, but rather, in combination, reflect the flexibility of leadership style.
Hersey and Blanchard Most school leaders attempt to adapt their behaviour to combine both task- and relations-oriented behaviour. However, the relations-oriented behaviour is sensitive, emotional, and attitudinal, and allows a leader less flexibility. On the other hand, task-oriented behaviour promotes effectiveness and organisational performance. Balancing the combinations of task-oriented and relations-oriented behaviour is essential in maintaining a harmonious and effective organisational climate.
In addition, 'Driving Leadership Style' incorporates the pragmatic approach of toning, timing, transforming, tasking, and teaming as essential ingredients for school leaders to understand the micro- meso- and macro-aspects of schools Rajbhandari This can be achieved by implementing a combination of both task- and relations-oriented behaviour. The principal of school B's behavioural pattern can be described as high on task- and low on relations-oriented behaviour.
The principal illustrates her behavioural style as: And I think her main idea is that we have to be treated equally and she is working a lot and she expects it also from us. I think she demands quite much from us, but she is an example herself.
But she cannot be very much involved with our lessons. This initiates autocratic behaviour, which enables the leaders to demonstrate their ability to act.
The reason I try to become strict is because everyone has to change position to get out of the comfort zone and work harder, which is important for the school. In dealing with her staff, the principal still demonstrated task-oriented behaviour by working harder herself, by way of setting an example for others.
However, the principal does have a strategy of managing people by adapting her usual management style by walking around and interacting with staff. Teacher 1 supports this view on the principal's relations-oriented behaviour: There aren't any new ideas that make her change her opinion. I like the way she looks around and summarises. She can process things quite well and handle them and reach a conclusion.
An example is the relations-oriented behaviour of the principal as she adapts her management style by walking around. According to transformational leadership theory, intellectual stimulation was provided by showing consideration to people, greeting them on the way while walking around, and judging the relevance of task performance to organisational effectiveness. In addition, the principal's strategy of managing people while walking around also provided her with opportunity for building relations and sharing information.
In connection to this, teacher 2 mentions: The principal's effectiveness is, therefore, a consequence of her ability to assess a situation and transform it through intellectual stimulation. Reflecting on this, teacher 2 admits: I need the feeling that I am in a group of experts. However, the success of a school depends heavily upon their leadership skills, intellectual ability, and behavioural factors. Leadership behaviour is influenced by the context and the cultural atmosphere of the school organisation and the legacy left by former leaders.
Legacy has a strong impact on cultural binding; therefore, new leadership brings a new culture. Leadership approaches can have an impact on initiating a change in the culture. A leadership behavioural pattern that is high on task-oriented behaviour resulted in this principal being able to put things together and delegate authority.
During this phase of settling into the new setup of an organisational structure and eliminating the legacy left by the former principal, the newly appointed principal had to centralise power and delegate only if necessary, and to trusted staff.
The vice principal describes the behavioural approach of the principal with respect to accountability and responsibility, when it came to re-engineering the school structure, as: So it was clear she took the leadership, she made it very clear and, of course, there was opposition because these groups were losing their power and they were used to this situation.
They could say, "I don't agree with you so I won't do this", with the previous principal, whereas with this principal, it is, "I don't agree with you, but I will do it". Nevertheless, an autocratic style of leadership does not necessarily have to involve direct instruction to the staff in an organisation. It can influence working behavioural attitudes by encouraging the employees to follow by example. In addition, the vice principal describes the behavioural approach of the principal by stating: However, doing things right was an urgent matter in order to enhance effectiveness.
In supporting the view of the vice principal, teacher 1 admits that the principal's leadership behavioural approach showed a high task- and a low relations-orientation: And that makes situations often a bit complicated. Moreover, since the principal was most often indulged in the working atmosphere, this relations-oriented behaviour was suppressed.
Most importantly, the Finnish way of showing good relations-oriented behaviour is to provide the employees with space and trust them with their work. Appraisals and compliments are not appreciated by Finnish employees. The principal of school B adopted task-oriented behaviour due to the contextual setting of the organisation left behind by the former principal. The legacy of the former principal created disruption resulting from the unwise delegation of power to the employees.
Therefore, to reclaim and centralise power, the principal's strategy was to reengineer structural reform and further decentralise accountability into the most suitable hands.
How to Improve if You Are a Task-Oriented Leader
This strategy enabled the school principal to exercise an autocratic style of leadership by adopting task-oriented behaviour. Leadership behavioural style leaping school forward case of school C Leader behaviour is acceptable and satisfying to subordinates to the extent that the subordinates see such behaviour as either an immediate source of satisfaction or instrumental to future satisfaction House With the behavioural pattern of leadership, the two styles - leadership task-oriented and relations-oriented - are not mutually exclusive as they can be combined in various ways.
It is important that each of these behavioural styles may be effective depending on the size of the organisation, the people's clarity about their roles, and the maturity of the staff Leithwood et al.
In relation to the styles of leadership behavioural theory, the principal of school C displayed and focused on task-oriented behaviour for achieving effectiveness. In connection to task-oriented behaviour of the principal, teacher 2 states: This brings about school success and, consequently, leadership success. This effectiveness and success also depends on a systemic approach that enables the school's actors to follow the standard operational procedures, eventually reducing social and cultural influences, and enabling staff to focus on schools policies only.
The principal of school C admits that leadership behavioural style is authoritative: I demand more from myself than I demand from others because we have to be children-focused and that's how we can grow together, but this doesn't make people happy. In the case of the school C's principal, her style reflected autocracy, centralising power, and politicising it according to her will. However, the principal also had a supportive nature for those who performed their jobs.
Reflecting this, teacher 3 mentions: Some parents are really difficult. The principal has to stand behind teachers if everything is done properly, so that if you are threatened or bullied by the parents, your own boss is supporting you. Despite this, she believed the educational authority required that power be distributed according to the definition of the principal's roles and responsibilities. Moreover, the principal experience also influenced her ability to manage the people in the organisation, which depends largely on the culture and the size of the organisation.
The previous principal wasn't like that; he delegated all the matters he didn't want to do or he didn't have time to do for people. He gave jobs not, as if to say, 'You need to do this', but rather that he trusted the teachers and the vice principal and the school secretary do those things better than he would do them. But this principal wants to do everything by herself.
She does everything by herself and she is working from 7 until 7. However, the school leadership also has to realise the importance of people working as a team in the organisation. The employee-centred behaviour has more to offer with respect to the motivation of employees. However, for school C's leader, task-oriented behaviour was adopted in the initial phases.
The success of leadership depends highly upon the leadership's behavioural pattern.
How to Improve if You Are a Task-Oriented Leader | jogglerwiki.info
When working with mature teachers, relations-oriented behaviour can generate motivation. However, to initiate the policies and rules in the school, a high task-oriented behaviour is essential.
Teacher 4 mentions the principal's autocratic behaviour: She is very strict with the rules. The rules we get from the state have to be followed absolutely, everything, and we have to fill in the papers on time, and she is really strict with these things, so in that sense she demands a lot. She works a lot herself and that's why she demands a lot from others as well. Moreover, working with mature teachers requires professional relations that generate teacher satisfaction.
Teacher 1 explains this professionalism at work: Of course, yeah, she has to have a good professional relationship, doesn't mean we have to be best friends, professionalism is very important. Task-oriented behaviour requires immense knowledge of how to work with people, which builds confidence in the leadership process.
The philosophical views of leadership; leadership's confidence at work; professionalism, communication, transformative vision, and trust in employees, all promote trust among the employees and a willingness to work as a team within the organisation.
However, with the principal of school C, her philosophy of leadership promoted confidence and trust in only a few employees. When working with mature employees, trust is the important factor for leadership success. The principal implemented a task-oriented behaviour with confidence, supported by her experience. In relation to the confidence of the principal and her experience, teacher 2 adds: This reflects the principal's inclination towards high task-oriented behaviour and her attempt to maintain control and keep power within her reach.
Teacher 4 indicates the principal's apparent inability to trust her employees by saying: In addition, they had been burdened with additional work over and above that stated in the rules set by the educational authority. This extra workload related to the additional reporting and administrative tasks required by the principal.
The commitment of teachers was reflected in the principal's efforts to encourage employees to adapt their attitudinal behaviour. Moreover, the teachers expected leadership to demonstrate considerate behaviour. The teachers admitted a relations-oriented behaviour from the principal would improve motivation and therefore commitment. The principal's task-oriented behaviour contradicted teachers' expectations as they expected principal participation and support.
According to Hersey and Blanchardthe combination of leadership's relations- and task-orientations produced the right amount of positive energy for motivation, commitment, and a good climate in an organisation. According to Boyle In connection with behavioural tendencies, the principal of school C centralised power through her task-oriented behaviour, which was carried out according to district educational authorities.
For the principal, the purpose of her initial phase at the school was to develop the structural foundation and correct the uneven distribution of power allocated to the teachers and administrative staff by the previous principal. Structural changes were of utmost importance.
Her emphasis on task influenced teachers' commitment, making them more responsible and accountable. Taking into consideration time, tasks, and individuals, the principal focused on task and time. Consequently, the initial phase of establishing the structural foundation required immense task and time orientation. This strategy by the school principal was important in initiating task-focused teamwork. Moreover, enabling task-oriented behaviour was necessary in order to develop formal structures, while distributing authority at a later stage.
Discussions and conclusion The leadership behavioural styles of school leaders in terms of both task-oriented and relations-oriented behaviour are not mutually exclusive. In accordance with leadership behavioural theory, as developed by researchers at Ohio State University and University of Michigan, I explored the leadership behaviour in the two frames of task-oriented and relations-oriented; and which orientation enabled the leaders to demonstrate their best competences in leaping forward.
An effective leadership behavioural style, whether task- or relations-oriented, is essential for a school to leap forward. Consequently, leadership success is closely associated with school success. Therefore, leadership flexibility is important to enable leaders to remain mobile. In the case of school A, the school leader demonstrated high relations-oriented behaviour, which significantly contributed to the school's ability to leap forward. However, in the other two cases of school B and school C, the school leadership was more inclined towards task-oriented behaviour.
Nevertheless, in all the cases of school leadership explored in Finland, both relations-oriented and task-oriented behaviour contributed equally to school improvement. The results suggest that the correct leadership behavioural style to enable a school to leap forward depends on situational demands and the practical intelligence of the leader to understand these demands.
The results also suggest that a relations-oriented leadership behavioural style is less flexible than that of a task-oriented behavioural style. This is supported by Rajbhandariwho found that leadership elasticity is higher in task-oriented leadership behaviour than in relations-oriented behaviour. The results corroborate his findings that a task-oriented behavioural leadership style is more effective, while a relations-oriented behavioural style is more efficient.
In this study, it was found that, in the case of school A, leaping forward was achieved by the principal's democratic leadership style, specifically focused on relations-oriented behaviour. However, in the other two cases of school B and school C, an autocratic leadership style displaying task-oriented behaviour enabled the school to leap forward.
Nevertheless, both leadership behavioural styles were successful, depending upon situational factors in the school environment. In the case of school A, the school principal had worked for a longer tenure in the same environment, which enabled her to understand variations in the organisational context. It was easy for this school leader to understand the environment and the followers' behavioural patterns.
However, in the case of schools B and C, both school principals were newly appointed, which required of them to understand the contextual variations within the new environment before they could focus on relations building. In addition to this, the school principals of schools B and C were both enabled to grow professionally as leaders within these new environments. In both cases, the legacy left by the former principals created challenges for the new principals in that they had to reengineer and restructure the staff's behavioural patterns.
The contextual variations produced by the appointment of a new principal included additional variations in the context. This also suggests that contextual variations can occur by themselves, which is also considered a prime variable in the organisational context. Moreover, a new context with a new leader can bring about extreme variations, as does the introduction of new educational policies, which need to be addressed by applying a referee leadership style Rajbhandari In the three schools explored in Finland, contextual variations were inevitable, which required the school leaders to focus on developmental advancement, implying the referee leadership style by analysing the immediate contextual problems in the school contextual settings.
The variations that occurred in school A were initiated by the transformation of the school into an international school, which was initiated by the municipality, and the implementation of special-education law in educational policy.
In schools B and C, the implementation of special-education law equally affected the contextual variations, as well as the re-engineering and restructuring in the organisational context. In the three cases explored, the experienced school leader, familiar with the context that is, school A demonstrated relations-oriented behaviour as she was familiar with the situational context of the school organisation, including the followers, which generated efficiency at work.
However, due to their unfamiliarity with the school environmental context, the principals of schools B and C adopted a task-oriented behavioural style that enabled the school leaders to remain effective with respect to task completion, even in the face of variations generated by the implementation of new policies.
A school leadership style that incorporates both the task-oriented and relations-oriented behaviour is essential to enable a school to leap forward. The findings suggest that understanding the context is critical when considering which behavioural style to adopt.
The results also suggest that the personality of individuals plays a vital role in determining their behavioural pattern. Nevertheless, both relations- and task-oriented leadership behavioural styles are essential to lead the followers to productivity through motivation and commitment. These aspects are considered of prime importance to organisational development and success.
The results indicate that no single behavioural style leads to successful leadership. There are aspects of individual personality and the organisational context that influence behavioural styles.Relationship and Task Based Leadership
Nevertheless, the findings suggest that context influenced by external forces is likely to impact leadership behavioural style. These external forces are inevitable during periods of change and development, and they influence school leadership to change their behavioural style. The findings also suggest that the importance and urgency of changes in school brought about by external forces will influence the school leadership to change its behaviour.
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This change in behaviour can further cause variations in the organisational environment. Therefore, to maintain the consistency in environmental settings, leadership behavioural pattern can play a vital role. This can further generate the maintenance of followership through leadership maintenance with PSP parameters, which is enabled by the right balancing of relations and task-oriented behaviour.
The leadership behavioural pattern enables the leaders to demonstrate leadership competencies by understanding the nature of organisation and their followers. Since good leaders are always judged by their relational approaches, it is equally vital for the leaders to demonstrate task-oriented behaviour for organisational effectiveness, even though this approach is not completely desired by the followers.
Moreover, the right balancing of the leadership behavioural pattern must be demonstrated to gain leadership competences.
It is important that changes and development in schools anchor the schools' leaders, for which changes in their behavioural style are essential. Recognizing that you are a task-oriented leader means you have already taken the important first steps to analyze your own leadership style. Being task-oriented is useful in many situations. However, an exceptional leader continually adjusts and adapts his leadership style to match the specific needs of the organization.
Task-oriented and relationship-oriented leadership
Because staff in a small company have to work closely with one another, small-business managers are often required to manage peer relationships and interpersonal conflicts. Task-oriented leaders should take steps to add people skills to their repertoire. Even if the behaviors do not come naturally, adopting the techniques of relationship-oriented managers will make you a more well-rounded leader.
Build a friendly and supportive work environment for all staff. Relationship-oriented leaders tend to focus on small events -- bringing breakfast for employees, holding regular staff meetings, or implementing a recognition program, for example -- that add opportunities for social support to the workplace.
Although task-oriented leaders may think of these activities as a waste of time, relationship-oriented leaders understand that a sense of team spirit can improve morale, productivity and, ultimately, the bottom line. Actively seek input from employees before implementing ideas, and collaborate to find solutions to work-related problems.
Resist the temptation to think that your task expertise automatically means your approach is the best way. Instead, fully explore new ideas from others before discounting them.