Sport under the influence | NZ Drug Foundation - At the heart of the matter
Ever wonder what our generation will be known for in the decades to come? When we're stressed or unable to handle our lives, we may turn to more intense substances. Of course, not everyone drinks alcohol and/or does drugs, but it is a When this happens in a relationship, it all begins to fall apart. Substance use and gambling disorders not only engage many of the same brain Although all addictions have the capacity to induce a sense of hopelessness and . Research shows that marriage and taking on child-raising responsibilities . Love is not a substance, not a commodity, not even a marketable power source. the pre-nuptial agreement, make it clear that marriage is all about contracts.
Friendships have developed and deepened as Kiwis have won, lost and then drunk together. He was also quick to point out the behaviour was not code-specific. Kiwi spectators have been known to turn ugly watching a variety of sports. Increasingly, the spotlight is falling on alcohol sponsorship in sport. What message does it send children when booze brands are emblazoned on the shirts of their sporting heroes?
Of course, this is not just an issue making headlines in New Zealand. Infor example, the British Medical Association called for a complete ban on alcohol advertising and sponsorship following the release of Under the Influence, a report showing the significant impact of alcohol marketing on harms associated with drinking. In fact, around non-governmental organisations from 43 countries have endorsed a Global Resolution to End Alcohol Promotion in World Cup events.
According to the Law Commission report, by the early s, more than half of all alcohol advertising expenditure was in forms of promotion other than broadcast advertising.
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That is a staggering amount and indicates the centrality of sport as a marketing tool for alcohol sales. Sports administration bodies should consider the health and ethical risks of accepting alcohol industry sponsorship.
The study involved 1, New Zealanders participating in 14 different team and individual sports. They ranged from grassroots to elite international level. Of those surveyed, 47 percent received free or discounted alcohol as part of their sponsorship package. While 59 percent of those sponsored received only three free drinks or less, 10 percent received 16 or more units of free alcohol at each team session. When the alcohol industry sponsors a team or individual, it may do so by offering one or some of the following: Perhaps unsurprisingly, sportspeople given free or discounted alcohol are shown to drink more than those given non-alcohol items as sponsorship, such as uniforms.
It should not be left to the public to demonstrate that alcohol industry sponsorship is harmful but, rather, it should be up to the proponents of the activity, i.
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In the meantime, government should prohibit the practice in the interest of reducing unhealthy alcohol use. Curbing the Harm, reflected on the content of the 2, submissions to its liquor licensing review.
It said almost every submitter — 2, of them — had something to say about advertising and sponsorship, with 86 percent supporting banning or restricting all alcohol advertising in all media. Alcohol advertising in New Zealand is self-regulated by the Advertising Standards Authority — an industry-based body.
Brand advertising has been allowed since As well as concern about overt advertising, such as that which promotes a particular brand, the Law Commission says there were also many submissions specifically concerning alcohol sponsorship. It is not just direct advertising and brand promotion. It is a thread that runs through the media. The Law Commission says the evidence linking drinking with advertising and sponsorship is compelling, particularly with regard to young people, but it does not support an alcohol advertising or sponsorship ban.
Unlike tobacco, it is possible to consume alcohol at low-risk levels… However, the contribution of alcohol to adverse health outcomes and to crime and the links between advertising, sponsorship and consumption of alcohol must continue to be monitored.
All drinks over 1. No advertising should be targeted at young people. No advertising is allowed on television or in cinemas. No alcohol sponsorship of cultural or sport events is permitted. Advertising is permitted only in the press for adults, on billboards, on radio channels under precise conditions and at special events or places such as wine fairs or wine museums. When advertising is permitted, its content is controlled. Messages and images may refer only to the qualities of products such as degree, origin, composition, means of production and patterns of consumption.
Court decisions have led to no use of images of drinkers or depiction of a drinking atmosphere. Recommendations included a 9pm watershed for television advertising, no posters or billboards within metres of a school and no alcohol promotion on social networking sites.
This is a view shared by Progressive Party leader Jim Anderton. The community vilifies them, rather than vilifying the alcohol companies who sponsor the games and encourage young New Zealanders to go out and drink to excess. In another, it sanctions a player who committed a vile act while under the influence of that very product. Our preference is never.
We'll certainly try and avoid [alcohol sponsors]. But many of the clubs are still stuck in arrangements with brewers who give them slabs of beer to sell as a fundraising mechanism in exchange for naming rights or other publicity.
Through an innovative incentive system, clubs currently reliant on the alcohol industry are being encouraged to look for alternative sponsors. A paper prepared by SPARC late last year revealed 43 percent of sports clubs surveyed felt a ban on alcohol-related sponsorship would have a large or very large impact on them.
These funds could then be allocated without alcohol industry involvement or branding through an independent funding body to individual sports organisations, clubs, teams or individuals. In order to test these hypotheses, two nationally representative cross-sections and of secondary school students from the Monitoring the Future study MTF are merged in order to adequately test the hypothesized relationships among adolescents who participate in competitive sports that involve different levels of physical contact.
The MTF study surveys eighth- 10th- and 12th-grade students on a range of different topics like substance use, academic performance, and competitive sports participation. For the purposes of this study, MTF data collected from eighth- and 10th-grade students during and are merged in order to capture a large sample of adolescents to adequately gauge how competitive sports participation is associated with substance use among American youth.
Measures Dependent Variables Four dependent variables were used to measure day prevalence of use among several substances and include the following: These measures were combined given the relatively small percentage of respondents in the MTF survey 4. Accordingly, all of the dependent measures for substance use were recoded as binary variables with the following categories: Another four dependent variables were also used to measure when respondents first started using each of the aforementioned substances.
Independent Variables Several variables are used to measure participation in different types of competitive sports based on level of contact. The MTF survey asks adolescents which competitive sports they have participated in during the past twelve months, either in their school or community.
Moreover, an additional question allowed non-participants to indicate that they did not participate in any competitive sport during the past year. These questions were grouped into three unique categories that capture the amount of contact that participants experience within certain types of sports.
The first category, high-contact sports, includes sports that involve continual violent contact that officially sanction hitting, knocking, or wrestling or tackling opponents to the ground. Respondents that indicated participating in football, ice hockey, lacrosse or wrestling during the past year were included within this category. The second category, semi-contact sports, includes sports that involve sporadic violent contact that may be officially sanctioned within the rules of the sport.
For instance, there is violent contact in basketball, but when players are knocked or forced to the ground, a penalty usually follows the violent exchange. If adolescents indicated participating in baseball, basketball, field hockey, or soccer, they were included within this category. The final category, non-contact sports, includes sports where no contact can occur between participants due to either official rules or the structure of the playing field.
An example of this is tennis, where the court the playing field is structured in such a way were physical contact between participants is impossible. Respondents that indicated participating in cross-country, gymnastics, swimming, tennis, track, or volleyball were included within this category.
In addition to these three variables, a global measure of competitive sport participation was constructed that combined all adolescents that participated in either high-contact, semi-contact, and non-contact sports.
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Finally, it must be noted that the variables constructed to capture the level of contact within these three groupings of competitive sports are not mutually exclusive. Adolescents could indicate participating in multiple sports. For example, an adolescent could participate in football high-contact sportbasketball semi-contact sportand track non-contact sport throughout the year.
This type of overlap among the categories can occur given that adolescents participate in different sports depending on the time of year. Control Variables Several control variables are included in the analyses to isolate the independent effects of participation in different types of sports on adolescent substance use. The first set of controls account for the geographic location of where the respondent resides and the year respondents participated in the survey.
The indicators for geographic location are based on Census regions that include the north central region i. Midwest statessouthern region i. The northeastern region serves as the reference category. To account for any bias across the survey years, indicator variables are used to flag whether respondents participated in or the survey year for represents the reference category. The second set of controls accounts for the race, SES, family structure, grade-level, and gender of the responding adolescents.
Race is a dichotomous measure that categorizes respondents as either white or non-white, with the non-white classification representing the reference category. Respondents indicating that their mothers have less than a high school degree serve as the reference category.
Family structure measures whether the respondent lives with either one or two parents i. Adolescents who indicated living with only one parent is the reference category.