Did Russia Really Go It Alone? How Lend-Lease Helped the Soviets Defeat the Germans | HistoryNet
Although relations between the Soviet Union and the United States had been strained in the years before World War II, the U.S.-Soviet alliance of – was U.S.-Soviet relations had soured significantly following Stalin's decision to . Operation Unthinkable was a code name of two related, unrealised plans by the Western Allies against the Soviet Union. They were ordered by British prime minister Winston Churchill in and developed by the British Armed Forces' Joint Planning Staff at the end of World War II in The first of the two assumed a surprise attack on the Soviet forces stationed. The American Russian Cultural Association (Russian: the following: , trucks, 13, combat vehicles.The Soviet Military Power - US Government Documentary
For more information, please see the full notice. Without the remarkable efforts of the Soviet Union on the Eastern Front, the United States and Great Britain would have been hard pressed to score a decisive military victory over Nazi Germany.
Nevertheless, in spite of intense pressure to sever relations with the Soviet Union, Roosevelt never lost sight of the fact that Nazi Germany, not the Soviet Union, posed the greatest threat to world peace.
World War II - Invasion of the Soviet Union, | jogglerwiki.info
Following the Nazi defeat of France in June ofRoosevelt grew wary of the increasing aggression of the Germans and made some diplomatic moves to improve relations with the Soviets. Welles refused to accede to Soviet demands that the United States recognize the changed borders of the Soviet Union after the Soviet seizure of territory in Finland, Poland, and Romania and the reincorporation of the Baltic Republics in Augustbut the U.
Government did lift the embargo in January Finally, during the Congressional debate concerning the passage of the Lend-Lease bill in earlyRoosevelt blocked attempts to exclude the Soviet Union from receiving U.
Canada would eventually produce 1, Valentines, almost exclusively for delivery to the Soviet Union. By July the Red Army had 13, tanks in service, with more than 16 percent of those imported, and more than half of those British. Lend-Lease aircraft deliveries were also of significance during the Battle of Moscow. While Soviet pilots praised the maneuverability of the homegrown I Chaika and I Ishak fighters—still in use in significant numbers in late —both types were certainly obsolete and inferior in almost all regards to the British-supplied Hurricane.
The Hurricane was rugged and tried and tested, and as useful at that point as many potentially superior Soviet designs such as the LaGG-3 and MiG There were apparently only LaGG-3s in the Soviet inventory by the time of the Moscow counteroffensive, and it was an aircraft with numerous defects. At the end of there were greater numbers of the MiG-3, but the plane was considered difficult to fly.
The Yak-1, arguably the best of the batch, and superior in most regards to the Hurricane, suffered from airframe and engine defects in early war production aircraft. A total of Lend-Lease aircraft had been delivered to Archangel by the time the Arctic convoys switched to Murmansk in December Of these, 99 Hurricanes and 39 Tomahawks were in service with the Soviet air defense forces on January 1,out of a total of 1, fighters.
British and Commonwealth deliveries to the Soviet Union in late and early would not only assist in the Soviet defense of Moscow and subsequent counteroffensive, but also in increasing Soviet production for the next period of the war. Substantial quantities of machine tools and raw materials, such as aluminum and rubber, were supplied to help Soviet industry back on its feet: Once again, raw figures do not tell the whole story. Although British shipments amounted to only a few percent of Soviet domestic production of machine tools, the Soviet Union could request specific items which it may not have been able to produce for itself.
Additionally, many of the British tools arrived in earlywhen Soviet tool production was still very low, resulting in a disproportionate impact. The handing over of forty imported machine tools to Aviation Factory No.
But the speed at which Britain in particular was willing and able to provide aid to the Soviet Union, and at which the Soviet Union was able to put foreign equipment into frontline use, is still an underappreciated part of this story. During the bitter fighting of the winter of —, British aid made a crucial difference.
Before the winter ended, many German divisions were reduced to barely a third of their original strength, and they were never fully built up again. The German plan of campaign had begun to miscarry in Augustand its failure was patent when the Soviet counteroffensive started. Nevertheless, having dismissed Brauchitsch and appointed himself army commander in chief in December, Hitler persisted in overruling the tentative opposition of the general staff to his strategy.
The first three months of the German—Soviet conflict produced cautious rapprochements between the U.
The Anglo-Soviet agreement of July 12,pledged the signatory powers to assist one another and to abstain from making any separate peace with Germany.
On August 25,British and Soviet forces jointly invaded Iranto forestall the establishment of a German base there and to divide the country into spheres of occupation for the duration of the war; and late in September—at a conference in Moscow —Soviet, British, and U.
The critical situation on the Eastern Front did not deter Hitler from declaring Germany to be at war with the United States on December 11,after the Japanese attack on the U. The war in the Pacific, —41 The war in China—41 In —32 the Japanese had invaded Manchuria Northeast China and, after overcoming ineffective Chinese resistance there, had created the Japanese-controlled puppet state of Manchukuo.
In the following years the Nationalist government of China, headed by Chiang Kai-shektemporized in the face of Japanese military and diplomatic pressures and instead waged an internal war against the Chinese Communistsled by Mao Zedongwho were based in Shensi Province in north-central China.
Meanwhile, the Japanese began a military buildup in North China proper, which in turn stimulated the formation of a unified resistance by the Nationalists and the Communists. In September the Japanese Imperial Army invades Manchuria, and refugees flee their burning cities.
Japanese expansion in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Overt hostilities between Japan and China began after the Marco Polo Bridge incident of July 7,when shots were exchanged between Chinese and Japanese troops on the outskirts of Peking. Open fighting broke out in that area, and in late July the Japanese captured the Peking-Tientsin area.
Thereupon full-scale hostilities began between the two nations. The Japanese also pushed southward and westward from the Peking area into Hopeh and Shansi provinces. In the Japanese launched several ambitious military campaigns that brought them deep into the heart of central China. They advanced to the northeast and west from Nanking, taking Suchow and occupying the Wu-han cities.
The Nationalists were forced to move their government to Chungking in Szechwan Province, about miles west of the Wu-han cities. The Japanese also occupied Canton and several other coastal cities in South China in Stock footage courtesy The WPA Film Library Nationalist Chinese resistance to these Japanese advances was ineffective, primarily because the Nationalist leadership was still more interested in holding their forces in reserve for a future struggle with the Communists than in repelling the Japanese.
By contrast, the Communists, from their base in north-central China, began an increasingly effective guerrilla war against the Japanese troops in Manchuria and North China. The Japanese needed large numbers of troops to maintain their hold on the immense Chinese territories and populations they controlled. Of the 51 infantry divisions making up the Japanese Army in38 of them, comprising aboutmen, were stationed in China including Manchuria.