Meet en regeltechniek cursus scolaire

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(Regel) verletzen. Violer/outrepasser infrangere He went down to the bus station to meet her. bus stop. n Cursus scolaire formazione scolastica. 20) Niveau de formation scolaire des chômeurs au Luxembourg de à . Ensuite l'on s'y met à définir un panier de consommation «minimal» pour le Ressourcen und Energieeffizienzgewinne in der Regel übersteigt, das auf die des socles de compétences pour certains moments du parcours scolaire. Det normative i folkeeventyret - mellom mytisk regel, moralsk prinsipp og. spilleregel. Nordisk Pedagogik, (3), Hohr, Hansjörg ( a).'Aesthetic .

Sie haben die Achtung vor ihrem Leben und ihrer Geschichte aufgegeben und verspielt. Im Spiegel der anderen sind sie als Arbeitslose, als Obdachlose, als Habenichtse, als Verlierer, als Kranke und Schwache nichts mehr wert. Ihr Leben bedeutet auch ihnen nichts mehr.

Sie werden zum Kostenfaktor in unserer Gesellschaft. Selbstachtung und Achtung gehen Hand in Hand. Sie brauchen mehr als andere den positiven Zuspruch! Mit ihrem neuen Programm will die Caritas nicht nur Forderungen an die Politik stellen, sondern die Herausforderung — auch von der Politik — aufgreifen und konkrete Wege aufzeigen, wie Menschlichkeit heute gelebt werden kann.

Sie sind durch Gesetze erzwungen und durch Abgaben finanziert. Dabei ging es nicht um den 2 Ebd, S. Unternehmen und Arbeitnehmer, Versicherte und mit Steuergeldern bezahlte Beamte, alle woll t en mehr Geld haben. Jeder konnte in seinem Hunger nach mehr bedient werden. Hier wird Zukunft schwer hypothekiert! Europa hat sich im selben Jahr eine neue Strategie gegeben, als Nachfolgerin der Lissabon-Strategie1, die ja bekanntlich als Endpunkt hatte. Diese Ziele mussten auf nationaler Ebene konkretisiert werden, insbesondere das Armutsreduktionsziel.

Dazu sollte jedes Land bis zum November einen nationalen Aktionsplan entwerfen. Germain Dondelinger legt die Situation der luxemburger Studenten dar und stellt die Rahmenbedingungen sowie den Entwicklungsstand des luxemburger Hochschulsystems vor. Die Statistiken, die auch schon in den bisherigen Ausgaben behandelt wurden, stehen diesmal in einer zweiten Abteilung.

Dabei war keine dieser Reden wie die andere. Siehe Gouvernement luxembourgeois So konnte der Premierminister in seiner Rede am 5. Und so brummt er wieder, der Casino-Kapitalismus! Der Premierminister sprach sodann von der Notwendigkeit, die Staatsschulden zu begrenzen. Hieran muss sich die Regierung nunmehr messen lassen! John Maynard Keynes, siehe z. Friedrich August von Hayek, siehe z.

Milton Friedman, siehe z. Siehe Gouvernement luxembourgeoisS. Wenden wir uns nunmehr dem in der Rede vorgestellten Antikrisenprogramm mehr im Detail zu.

Es gehe allerdings auch um Fragen der Lohngestaltung. Lohnanteile unterhalb eines Deckels von zwei mal den Mindestlohn vorzunehmen. Der Premier schloss seine Rede damit, dass dies die von ihm erwarteten Antworten auf die Krise gewesen seien, dass aber weitere Antworten noch vor Ende des Jahres nachzureichen seien. Somit wurde diese Rede zum Schlusspunkt hinter die gescheiterte Tripartite.

Wie gesagt, weitere Details folgen in Kapitel 2. Eine Politik haben sieht anders aus. Capitalism and Freedom, Chicago. The Constitution of Liberty, London. Aus der Krise in die Armut? Von Tripartite zu Bipartites 2. Siehe Gouvernement luxembourgeois a. Von nun an ergab sich eine Neuerung: April den Misserfolg und das Ende der Tripartite. Siehe Gouvernement luxembourgeois b. Siehe Gouvernement luxembourgeois c. Siehe dazu das Kapitel 1 dieser Ausgabe des Sozialalmanachs.

So kam es dazu, dass sich im September Regierung und Arbeitnehmerseite allein trafen. Als sich dann hier herausstellte, dass beide, ohne das Patronat, zu Einigungen kommen konnten und kamen, wurde dies flugs als Bipartite bezeichnet. Die Vereinbarung zwischen Regierung und Gewerkschaften am Formation thorique en suivant des cours organiss par l'ABS et formation pratique parallle comme stagiaire dans une des bibliothques formatrices pendant deux ans.

Il y a trois cours parallles par an, deux en allemand et un cours en franais. Formation essentiellement thorique durant trois ans l'cole de bibliothcaires Genve EBGavex six mois de stages dans diffrentes bibliothques. Comme les cours de l'ABS et de l'EBG sont surchargs de matires gnrales une discipline aussi spcialise que le catalogage de la musique imprime et des enregistre ments sonores a de prime abord peu de chance tre introduite dans la formation de base.

Toutefois, un premier cours sur le traitement de la musique imprime a eu lieu l'automne pass, dans le cadre du cours romand de l'ABS Lausanne. Ce cours qui traitait non seulement le catalogage, mais aussi les acquisitions, l'indexation et la classification, la conservation et les recherches bibliographiques fut jug trop spcialis et trop difficile par les participants qui n'apportaient presque tous que d'insuffisantes connaissances musicales.

En consquence, l'enseignante envisage de tenir davantage compte des divers niveaux de connaissances des participants et de leurs intrts lors de son prochain cours. La musique imprime tant peu rpandue dans les bibliothques suisses un entraine ment dans son catalogage y est rarement possible,- cette situation dplorable ne fait que soutenir le manque d'intrt gnral pour le traitement de ce type de document.

Nan moins le plus grand nombre des bibliothques formatrices offre aux stagiaires la possibilit de s'essayer au catalogage de quelques cahiers de musique ou de disques pendant la dure d'un jour un mois; cette partie de la formation pratique n'est souvent que facultative.

Un entrainement approfondi se fait surtout aprs l'obtention du diplme avec l'engagement dans une bibliothque ou un dpartement spcialis en musique. Malgr ses efforts le groupe de travail "Formation" du Groupe national suisse de l'AIBM n'a pas russi infiltrer dans les deux cours suisses-allemands de l'ABS quel ques heures sur le catalogage de la musique. Par contre, l'ABS nous encourage tenir des cours de perfectionnement sur cette matire hors du cadre de la formation de base dont un premier aura probablement lieu cet automne.

La prolongation continuelle des loisirs permettant l'individu de s'adonner davan tage ses activits favories o la musique occupe souvent une position prdominante, a forc mainte bibliothque constituer une collection musicale. En consquence, le besoin d'une instruction srieuse dans le traitement des documents musicaux est devenu toujours plus urgent.

Il est donc important que le Groupe suisse de l'AIBM ne cesse de s'employer raliser une formation continue dans le catalogage de la musique. Education and Training for Music Catalogers in the U. Pourtant, le cadre des cours de perfectionnement offrira plus de temps et de libert dans la ralisation des cours que la formation de base avec son programme dj trop charg.

Par ses activits le groupe suisse de l'AIBM devrait aussi arriver sensibiliser davan tage les gnralistes aux problmes spcifiques que pose le catalogage de la musique. Il est important de rendre leur existence plus vidente surtout dans les bibliothques gnrales o le catalogage informatis est principalement bas sur un format de livres; la ralisation d'un traitement spcifique la musique imprime et aux enregistrements sonores y rencontre des difficults lors qu'elle ncessite une innovation informatique qui ne peut tre applique dans d'autres domaines; tant trop spcifique elle ne sera pas tout de suite ou mme pas du tout concrtise.

Comme un entrainement approfondi dans le catalogage de la musique n'est pas garanti dans la plupart des bibliothques suisses faute de personnel qualifi, les petites bibliothques et les dpartements spcialiss des grandes qui ne sont pas rattaches un rseau informatis et ne peuvent donc pas jouir de la centralisation et la surveillance du catalogage par des spcialistes sont dans une situation particulirement difficile.

Le refus de collaboration interbibliothques peut-il tre justifi dans tous les cas devant le manque continuel de personnel et de moyens qui rgnent dans beaucoup de nos collections musicales? Education and Training for Music Catalogers in the United States Timothy Carobine Columbus, Ohio ' There are generally two educational requirements for those wishing to become music catalogers in most academic, public and conservatory libraries in the United States.

The first is a strong back ground in music, which is often achieved through formal training at least to the Bachelor's degree level. The second is a Master of Library Science degree. The MLS can be earned at many colleges and universities, but few curriculums provide regular, developed or required courses of study for music catalogers.

Once employed, beginning music catalogers in many institutions find that they are the sole specialist in the cataloging of music materials.

Difficulties may arise in job training because of the differing levels of knowledge between trainer and trainee on both general catalog ing issues and issues specific to cataloging music materials.

Opportunities for continuing educa tion and training are available through various publications and through involvement in organiza tions interested in the bibliographic control of music materials. Es gibt in den Vereinigten Staaten im allgemeinen zwei Ausbildungsvoraussetzungen fr diejenigen, die Musikkatalogisierer in wissenschaftlichen, ffentlichen und Musikhochschulbibliotheken werden wollen. Zunchst werden ausreichende Musikkenntnisse erwartet, die in der Regel formal erzielt werden durch den Bachelor-Abschlu.

Der MLS kann an verschiedenen Colleges und Universitten erworben werden, aber nur wenige Curricula bieten regulre Kurse, die schon ausgearbeitet wurden oder noch zu erarbeiten sind, fr das Studium des Musikkatalogisierens an.

Einmal angestellt, sehen Berufs anfnger unter den Musikkatalogisierern, da sie reine Spezialisten fr das Katalogisieren von Musikalien sind. Katalogisierungsangelegenheiten als auch bei speziellen Fragen der Katalogisierung von Musika lien vorliegt. Gelegenheiten zur stndigen Aus- und Fortbildung sind gegeben durch verschiedene Publikationen und durch Angebote von Organisationen, die mit der bibliographischen Kontrolle von Musikalien befat sind. Aux Etats-Unis, deux formations initiales sont gnralement requises pour les personnes qui dsirent devenir bibliothcaires musicaux dans la plupart des bibliothques scolaires, publiques ou de conservatoires.

La premire est une solide base musicale, qui est souvent acquise au cours des tudes gnrales, au moins jusqu'au niveau bac. La seconde est une "matrise en science des bibliothques" Master of library science.

Ce diplme peut tre obtenue dans beaucoup d'coles et d'universits, mais peu de cursus proposent des cours suffisamment rguliers, labors et adapts dans les matires utiles aux bibliothcaires musicaux. Une fois dans la vie active, les bibliothcaires dbutants dcouvrent dans beaucoup d'tablissements qu'ils sont les seuls spcia listes en catalogage de matriel musical.

Des difficults peuvent survenir dans la formation per manente, dues aux diffrents niveaux de connaissance entre les formateurs et les stagiaires, con cernant la fois des problmes gnraux de catalogage et des questions spcifiques au catalogage de matriel musical. Les occasions de complter et d'enrichir la formation sont offertes par diverses publications, et par l'adhsion des organisations s'occupant du contrle bibliographique du matriel musical.

In the United States there are many different types of libraries that collect music materials. Musical scores, both printed and manuscript, sound recordings, and books on music can be found in the libraries of many colleges and universities, in public libraries, in conservatories and at the Library of Congress.

Many orchestras maintain libraries of scores and parts for performance, and archives act as repositories concerned with the preservation of special collections of all types of materials relating to music. While the missions of these types of institutions vary academic and public libraries are generally service oriented while archives serve a more custodial function, for exampleall share a common need in order to operate effectively: The personnel charged with carrying out this function are music catalogers.

Within the cataloging departments of many libraries the role of the music cataloger can be fairly narrowly defined. The cataloging of books on music poses no special problems, but musical scores and sound recordings differ enough bibliographically and in content to warrant special consideration in the cataloging process.

Libraries need music catalogers as specialists to deal particularly with these types of materials. In addition, a shared cataloging environment exists in the United States in which the work of a cataloger at one library may very well be used to aid in the organization of materials at other libraries throughout the nation by way of various bibliographic utilities. Despite the specialized and far reaching nature of the music cataloger's work, the conditions of the job market and perception of the role of catalogers in general are such that jobs of this type can be taken up by persons immediately after graduation from library school.

The education and training of those assuming entry level music cataloging positions are important considerations in the positive realization of both local and cooperative cataloging goals.

The primary educational requirement to practice any type of librarianship in the United States is the Master of Library Science degree. Over fifty colleges and univer sities offer accredited programs of study leading to this degree. The goal of such 1 American Library Directory42nd ed. Education and Training dor Music Catalogers in the U. The focal point is AACR2 rev. The table of contents reproduced in Table l2 shows that the code is divided into two parts, the first setting out the procedures for description, the second concen trating on headings, uniform titles and references, all points of access.

In basic cata loging courses much time is spent on Chapters 1 general rules for description and 2 rules for cataloging books, pamphlets and printed sheets. The idea behind this em phasis is to give the student a thorough grounding in the principles of description. Chapters 5 and 6 covering rules of description for music and sound recordings respec tively are studied only briefly if at all.

Similarly, chapters are studied to allow a basic understanding of determining access points. Sections of these chapters devoted to music materials, particularly in chapters 21 and 25, because of their specific nature generally are covered only in passing. It quickly becomes apparent that the student wishing to specialize in the cataloging of music materials will need to spend additional time in addressing those sections of the code specially developed for scores and sound recordings.

Additional courses in cataloging which may include coverage of those portions of the code in some detail may be taken as elective or advanced courses at some library schools. A more fruitful avenue for students interested in music cataloging though is undoubtedly individualized study. In courses offered at a number of library schools called variously "internships," "independent studies," "in-service training courses" or "practicums," the student typically devotes a specified number of hours to actually working in music libraries under the tutelage of professional music librarians.

Under this arrangement, students interested in music cataloging are able to study with profes sional music catalogers. While theoretical topics may be discussed, the emphasis is usually on practical application of skills. For students pursuing careers in music cataloging, this experience is especially important.

It allows them to give full attention to specifics not available elsewhere in their studies and can provide a thorough ground ing in professional work. When well carried out such opportunities may even be consi dered by employers to be nearly as good as professional experience.

Because of its general nature, the Master of Library Science is only a part of the education recommended for those wishing to become music catalogers. To gain further insight into what libraries look for in terms of educational background for their music catalogers, the descriptions for 60 entry level music cataloger positions advertised between October and June were examined.

In the United States, job descriptions for librarians commonly stipulate certain conditions as "required" for obtaining a job, and other conditions that are "desirable" or "preferable" for a candidate to meet. Clearly, the Master of Library Science is nearly mandatory, with 57 of 60 jobs listing it as a requirement, and the remaining 3 as a desired or preferred degree.

Not surprisingly, 32 of the jobs required at least an undergraduate level degree in music as well. Obviously a thorough ground ing in music is necessary to successfully practice music cataloging, and it is reasonable to expect that a person holding such a degree would have the ability to read music nota tion, and possess knowledge of musical styles and a perspective on music history.

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Undergraduate degrees in music can be earned at many colleges and universities throughout the United States. American Library Association,p. Masters level degrees in music usually musicology or music theory were required in only 2 but desired or preferred in 20 of the jobs posted.

A significant number of employers are suggesting that the quality of work they expect from their music cataloger is best carried out by someone who has attained a rather high level of education in the discipline.

This raises several issues for potential music catalogers. An undergraduate degree normally takes from 46 years to complete. Master of Library Science programs usually require 12 years of study and, depending on the institution, Master's level degrees in music commonly require 13 years to attain.

This is a significant commitment of time and also money. Fortunately a number of library schools offer specialized programs of study that help the student interested in entering the music cataloging profession receive maximum educational benefits in a more reasonable time frame than completing multiple degrees in succession.

Requirements for the specialization may include but are not restricted to courses on music cataloging. A select number of schools offer yet another option. Through coursework in both the library school and the school of music at the institution the Master's degrees in both Library Science and Music can be pursued simultaneously. These dual degree programs commonly take several years to complete, but are generally designed in such a way that less time is required than in pursuing each Master's degree separately.

One other point must be noted with reference to Table 2. Twenty-eight of the 60 jobs required music catalogers to have knowledge of at least one language other than English, and 14 of the 60 preferred it. This again represents a skill that is often re quested of beginning music catalogers but not part of the normal course work common ly offered in library schools. Students of music cataloging must have studied languages in prior educational endeavors or, if this is lacking, must consider extra course work to acquire foreign language skills.

The 60 job descriptions viewed to compile the summary represented music catalog ing positions in a wide variety of institutions: A closer look at the descriptions would most definitely show that each position was unique, with actual responsibilities incumbent upon the size of the library, its music collection, the number and variety of clientele served, the number of staff and other factors.

In fact beginning music catalogers may find them selves in any of a number of situations. Only in the largest libraries or in libraries with the greatest emphasis on music will music catalogers concentrate solely on cataloging. In other libraries the music cataloger may have responsibilities in more than one area. For example, a music cataloger may be primarily responsible for cataloging scores and sound recordings, but may also be expected to catalog vidocassettes, or perhaps 4 See Elaine C.

Some music catalogers may have even more diverse responsibility. In some smaller libraries or libraries that have a relatively small music collection, one person may be responsible for all aspects of operation from acquisitions to cataloging and public service to adminis tration.

Whatever the responsibilities of a particular job, the presence or absence of other music specialists among the cataloging staff can have profound effects on the training of the newly hired music cataloger. Even with the best education, music catalogers in their first professional positions face much that is new. Each library has local cata loging procedures that must be learned. Any experienced cataloger at the library may be able to train the new music cataloger in these.

But when it comes to the specifics of music cataloging, unless there is another music specialist among the staff, beginning music catalogers may find themselves without much guidance. It may be difficult for the beginning music cataloger to interact effectively with a trainer who is not well versed in the special rules for music.

The trainer may not read music and may not be familiar with the peculiarities of music publishing, with concepts unique to music materials such as "arrangements," or with the terminology of music. While the trainer has much knowledge to impart to the music cataloger trainee on general cataloging matters, a gap exists between the two in regard to their knowledge and expertise in cataloging music materials. To add to the problem, it is not uncommon to find libraries in which the cataloging department is physically and administratively separa te from the music collection itself.

Access to materials needed to conduct research in the course of cataloging and to other music specialists working with the collection in other capacities may be severely restricted. Beginning music catalogers may find them selves feeling rather isolated. Fortunately there are answers to this dilemma. There are a number of texts and manuals on music cataloging that are useful references for the beginning music cataloger. Notable among these are two recent publications by Richard Smiraglia, Cataloging Music,5 a handbook for cataloging scores and sound recordings, and Music Cataloging6, primarily a textbook on the subject.

These items are mentioned because they are written specifically for music catalogers by an experienced music cataloger. Smiraglia's works instruct music specialists not only in practical aspects of music cataloging, but also address music cataloging from conceptual, theoretical, and historical perspectives.

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The beginning music cataloger can gain much insight into the profession from Smiraglia's discussions and the rich bibliographies contained in the monographs. For guidance in applying the cataloging code, the music cataloger may gamer advice from the Library of Congress. Soldier Creek Press,p. Libraries Unlimited,p. The Music Cataloging Bulletin also serves as a forum for discussion on cataloging matters by encouraging communi cations from the readership on cataloging questions, problems and solutions.

Beginning music catalogers have an excellent opportunity to establish contacts with other music catalogers through membership in the Music Library Association. The association's membership directory lists over individual members primarily from the United States and Canada, a substantial number of whom are or have at some time worked as music catalogers. Among the many committees that operate within the Music Library Association are several devoted to cataloging.

They routinely meet at the annual conferences of the association for the purpose of discussing cataloging issues as a group. In addition the Music Library Association offers one other means of networking which can be particularly valuable for the beginning music cataloger. Taking advantage of a common computer technology, the association has organized an electronic mailing list that facilitates high-speed, low cost communication between music librarians at institutions with computer support.

The list currently has over subscribers. A message sent to the list from one library is sent electronically to all members of the list almost instantly. Members can then respond either to the entire list, or individually to the person submitting the message.