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(2) Ticktin, Miriam. “Where Ethics and Politics Meeting: The Violence of Humanitarianism in France.” American Ethnologist (): 7 Ticktin, Miriam, Casualties of Care: Immigration and the Politics of power or as biopolitics' (Joseph, Jonathan, 'The limits of governmentality: Social . cited in Miriam Ticktin, 'Where ethics and politics meet: the violence of. Where Ethics and Politics Meet: The Violence of Humanitarianism in France. Ticktin, Miriam . 6, Humanitarian Reason: A Moral History of the Present . Scheper‐Hughes, Nancy, Alter, Joseph S., Ayora‐Diaz, Steffan I., Csordas, Thomas J.
There is no universality to humanitarian practices, which are instead contingent on a specific political setting at hand. The Violence of Humanitarianism in France, both Redfield and Ticktin, respectively, identify a common thread across humanitarianism: As Ticktin illustrates, humanitarianism reinforces colonial subjugation as well as racial and gender hierarchies in what is, arguably, a postcolonial context.
Popular French colonial discourse on Algeria informs stereotypes of Algerians that continue to pervade discriminatory employment, education and other policies that privilege white citizens 3.
The ability of health care workers to assign political value to lives brings the underlying violence of humanitarianism into sharp relief 2. On the other hand, bios describes a life rich with networks and communities unique to humans 2.
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While the nature of humanitarianism is ostensibly apolitical, to either grant or deny an immigrant a permit is a political end in and of itself. As Ticktin demonstrates, the process of diagnoses is often governed by emotion.
Similar reluctance towards immigrants is felt throughout European governing bodies. Essentially, his diction equates immigrants to enemy forces.
Prior to these insensitive remarks, the Italian navy documented 2, accounts of drowned or missing refugees in the Mediterranean 8.
In other words, humanitarian efforts to save migrants would result in a surge of immigrants to Europe. After dismantling Mare Nostrum, the joint European Union initiative created a more passive program called Operation Triton, which has a third of the funding as its predecessor 8. When people hear that word, it seems, they tend to imagine something deep, basic and fixed. So we end up with a kind of car crash of anachronism, where all the things anthropologists have long sought to render looser and more mutable culture, society, difference, etc.
That is to say, the turn to ontology is simply the move of saying that in anthropological inquiry nothing can be taken for granted, as the obvious starting point let alone building-block for inquiry.
What things are or what they might be is the ontological question that must remain constitutively open in order to render anthropology as a thoroughly decolonizing project. It follows that what ontology, anthropology, colonialism and its anti are, and what they might become, are all questions that must remain constitutively open too, as part of the very act of seeking to answer them.
This is why the concern with ontology in anthropology is meant, if anything, as a more thorough form of anti-essentialising reflexivity: Ontologies and Ethical Lives Ontologies recommend ethical lives. Ethics projects ontological premises. The paper begins with a discussion of the ways in which ethnographers have appropriated the language of ontology, distinguishing between what can be called strong and weak ontology.
Humanitarianism | ANTH S International Health: Anthropological Perspectives
An alternative approach approaches ontologies from the perspective of ethical life. One common notion of ontology has been influenced by a distinctive project of many dominant religious systems, namely the effort to rationalize ethics under an organizing principle grounded in representations about ultimate reality. This effort instigates the inculcation of a transcendental point of view among believers. Such a point of view invites a universalization that seems to demand principles sufficiently general that they can hold across an indefinite number of cases and contexts.
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In both Christianity and Islam, for example, the point of view of a transcendent deity offers a position on which to stand, from which one may survey the whole range of known ethical values available in any given cultural world, such that their inconsistencies become visible. It is the pressure exerted by this asymptotically transcendental point of view that provides much of the conceptual and ethical motivation for the kind of purification or reform movements that are so characteristic of monotheistic religious history.
Paradoxically, the universalizing theologies that underwrite this perspective seem to be one basis for the anti-universalizing idea that we, as anthropologists, can even identify ontologies at all. Catherine Fennell and Joseph Hankins: At some times, the objects of the ethnographic gaze have been physically and economically remote, at others, they have been more familiar. Regardless, ethnographers have struggled to find common ground by which to orchestrate encounters between the strange and the familiar.
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That struggle, we suggest, is fundamentally one of extending sympathy: It asks anthropologists and their readers to imagine and place themselves in the conditions of another. Examining ethnographic writing that foregrounds the suffering of others, this paper considers how and with what effects pain has become the ground for sympathetic engagement across human differences.
What shared social, political, and moral projects do ethnographic renderings of suffering presume and enliven at a moment in which anthropologists attempt to articulate their relevance within and beyond the academy?
What conditions capacitate presentations of suffering from anthropologists, and how might these conditions speak to the discipline's historical engagement with difference?
Where Ethics and Politics Meet: The Violence of Humanitarianism in France
Finally, what does it mean for us to serve as translators of human suffering? Our paper will explore these questions as a way to interrogate the contours of contemporary ethnographic sensibility. Meteorological Moods and Atmospheric Attunements This talk will consider the moral, political, and ontological dimensions of two devastating typhoons — Typhoon Sudal and Super Typhoon Maysak — both of which hit Yap about a decade apart. A central goal of the paper will be to illustrate how an ontologically responsive, politically inflected, and morally attuned mood of despair anticipated, and in part patterned, the conditions of possibility arising in, from, and alongside these events.
Ethical Distance and Public Secrecy Criticism is often evaluated by the degree of distance from its object, indicating a lack of bias, a non-immersion, or a skeptical inquiry. How is this distance achieved?