Models of relations between research and policy-making. 10 racist and authoritarian regime, or previously pursued career paths became more difficult in the. This paper offers a critical review of the theoretical literature on the relationship between the production of scientific knowledge and its use in policy formulation. They employ policy analysts to research complex problems and recommend How they shape policy. Policy analysts work to influence political and social decisions. Although their example, the Council on Foreign Relations published an analysis that . Many policy analyst jobs with the Federal Govern- ment are posted.
Research impact: how academics can grab policy makers’ attention
Research on major housing issues and programs tends to be ongoing, with new research projects being developed on the basis of findings of earlier research and on program outcomes. Each HUD administration is able to draw on that body of research, each is able to add to it during its term, and each leaves behind it a body of completed studies and studies in process that are intended to be of use to its successor. The research is ongoing because HUD has had the same basic missions for many years, as well as many of the same programs.
Yet although the missions have seldom changed and the major programs have long histories, some programs have been terminated, and there have been modifications in all of them. Some of the modifications have occurred in response to changes in policy priorities and some to address program management or other problems identified in the course of program operations.
Research contributes to the decision to undertake new programs and the design of the programs. Experience with the programs, once they have begun operations, often raises issues of program effectiveness or cost, and identifies problems that need attention.
Research is often undertaken to address these issues, to evaluate the effectiveness of the programs, answer specific questions about them, and suggest modifications.
It is an iterative process. This is particularly true of the research program, and most particularly true in recent years as the size of the research budget has been constant or shrinking.
Research is undertaken to answer questions or resolve problems; when the budget is limited, fewer questions or problems can be addressed. This reduction in research can have negative consequences for HUD policy makers and the public; use- ful information is not available when it is relevant. The cost is real, albeit indirect and easily overlooked. The research activities in any given year will not cover all of the major program areas of HUD.
But over time research has covered nearly all of them.
Looking for other ways to read this?
Policy development in any given year draws on the research activities of the last several years, and even longer. Section 8 new construction; tenant-based assistance, with a focus on cost; housing vouchers, with a focus on program outcomes; the Community Development Block Grant CDBG formula; housing mar- ket discrimination; and regulation of the government sponsored enterprises, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. There is some overlap between the first two examples, since both programs were authorized under Section 8 inand some of the major research projects over the next several years covered both.
Also, the second and third both concern the programs that provide assistance to households, tracing the development of policy along different dimensions and over somewhat different periods of time. Housing assistance has routinely constituted well over one-half of the HUD budget.
It differed from previous project-based subsidy programs in that the subsidy was explicitly based on the income of the assisted household. The commitment to an income-conditioned subsidy was derived in part from Housing in the Seventies U.
Department of Housing and Urban Development,the major study of previous subsidy programs. The study did not recommend enacting a program like Section 8 new construction, but its recommendation for income-conditioned subsidies became part of the program.
By the late s it was becoming clear to policy makers that the Section 8 New Construction Program was exceptionally expensive. The evaluation by Abt Associates Wallace et al. With respect to outcomes, the evaluation found that the new construction program primarily served white elderly households and that few minority households participated; in contrast the certificate program was generally representative of the eligible population.
The recommendations of the commission report were adopted by the administration, and inCongress repealed the Section 8 New Construction Program.
The repeal applied to further projects.
Research impact: how academics can grab policy makers’ attention | Education | The Guardian
The inventory of Section 8 projects remained as assisted housing. By the early s, the question of whether and how to preserve these projects for their low-income residents became an important public policy concern. Like its predecessor program under Sectionthe subsidy contracts for Section 8 new construction had a year term, after which the owners could opt out of the program.
This study, with results published in andprovided the most extensive data yet available on the Section 8 inventory. Policymakers often have relatively tight timeframes when compared to academics: In contrast, academics are driven by the need to secure grants and get published in high quality journals.
Their research may take five years or more — the length of a parliament. Having been trained to think carefully and at length about the problems they confront, they find responding to the more immediate demands of policymakers a challenge. How can these difficulties be overcome? In order to develop such agendas, universities need to foster new channels of engagement with policymakers. Policymakers could have an increasing presence on our campuses to develop the questions that are key to their policy concerns.
He gained direct access to our latest research, while our researchers gleaned insights into the policy making processes at DECC. Other schemes exist to bring policymakers to universities.
Philip Rutnam, permanent secretary for transport is giving a public lecture on 11 December, at Bath, as well as being involved in a round table discussion with some of our leading transport experts. But, these schemes are few and far between and the gulf between the frequency of policymaker campus visits, and the wealth of possibilities this could unleash, remains. Get more academics in front of policymakers The onus lies not just with policymakers visiting academic institutions.