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Shorthand is an abbreviated symbolic writing method that increases speed and brevity of or for later typing, data entry, or (mainly historically) transcription to longhand, although longer term uses do 3 Common modern English shorthand systems; 4 Notable shorthand systems; 5 See also; 6 References; 7 External links . What is shorthand - A symbolic writing method that helps to learn shorthand writing It permits the steno typist to attained high speeds because several keys are. Knowledge of Shorthand aids in the development of skills related to (including typewriters) and ultimately computers, shorthand was the most.
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Reviewing Gregg Shorthand Dictionary emphasizes the inherent ambiguities of the system and the amount of time required to memorize tens of thousands of outlines. Gregg Shorthand is highly cursive and it is not easily readable. Gregg Shorthand abbreviations must be immediately translated and a considerable effort would be required if transcription is not done right away. Learning Gregg Shorthand requires an extended period of time and constant practicing to keep a large number of outlines in your memory.
It's likely that for some words you will not remember their outlines. Also, Gregg shorthand has outlines only for 28, words which means you will have to create outlines or abbreviations for the missing words on your own.
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You can easily combine the Gregg and EasyScript to reduce the learning time and the volume of memorization. EasyScript enables you to create abbreviations for any word and they can be used for the words that are particularly difficult to remember or for which Gregg shorthand outlines are not available.
James Hill, an instructor of Pitman Shorthand, developed it in It is a hybrid system based on the standard alphabet and writing a partial outline of each letter.
Teeline shorthand utilizes the same principle as all other shorthand methods by assigning a unique outline to each word. It requires a long learning curve and daily practicing all the time. As with all symbol-based systems, Teeline needs to be transcribed as soon as possible to prevent spending additional time later. Quickscript uses the semi-cursive form by writing a partial line of each letter. You need to memorize the half-letters, the alternate letters and the optional letters as well as the specialized brackets.
Quickscript letters are connected wherever is possible. For this purpose it has alternate forms for same words which considerably increases the learning curve. Graphic representations of consonants and vowels are rotated or mirrored of other letters.
Many letters and sounds have multiple designations. For example, letter t can be written in three ways and the sound of ' x ' is created with two characters ks and gz. Steno-Based System The steno-based system consists of three basic components: In addition, there is the Yamane pen shorthand of unknown importance and three machine shorthands systems Speed Waapuro, Caver and Hayatokun or sokutaipu.
The machine shorthands have gained some ascendancy over the pen shorthands. There are several semi-cursive systems. The two Japanese syllabaries are themselves adapted from the Chinese characters both of the syllabaries, katakana and hiragana, are in everyday use alongside the Chinese characters known as kanji; the kanji, being developed in parallel to the Chinese characters, have their own idiosyncrasies, but Chinese and Japanese ideograms are largely comprehensible, even if their use in the languages are not the same.
Prior to the Meiji era, Japanese did not have its own shorthand the kanji did have their own abbreviated forms borrowed alongside them from China. Takusari Kooki was the first to give classes in a new Western-style non-ideographic shorthand of his own design, emphasis being on the non-ideographic and new. This was the first shorthand system adapted to writing phonetic Japanese, all other systems prior being based on the idea of whole or partial semantic ideographic writing like that used in the Chinese characters, and the phonetic approach being mostly peripheral to writing in general even today, Japanese writing uses the syllabaries to pronounce or spell out words, or to indicate grammatical words.
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Furigana are written alongside kanji, or Chinese characters, to indicate their pronunciation especially in juvenile publications. Furigana are usually written using the hiragana syllabary; foreign words may not have a kanji form and are spelled out using katakana. This led to a thriving industry of sokkibon shorthand books. The ready availability of the stories in book form, and higher rates of literacy which the very industry of sokkibon may have helped create, due to these being oral classics that were already known to most people may also have helped kill the yose theater, as people no longer needed to see the stories performed in person to enjoy them.
Sokkibon also allowed a whole host of what had previously been mostly oral rhetorical and narrative techniques into writing, such as imitation of dialect in conversations which can be found back in older gensaku literature; but gensaku literature used conventional written language in-between conversations, however. Stenographic shorthands can be further differentiated by the target letter forms as geometric, script, and semi-script or elliptical.How to Write on the Steno Machine - CALL 877-253-0200 Court Reporting and Captioning at Home
Geometric shorthands are based on circles, parts of circles, and straight lines placed strictly horizontally, vertically or diagonally. The first modern shorthand systems were geometric. The first system of this type was published under the title Cadmus Britanicus by Simon Bordley, in However, the first practical system was the German Gabelsberger shorthand of This class of system is now common in all more recent German shorthand systems, as well as in Austria, Italy, Scandinavia, the Netherlands, Russia, other Eastern European countries, and elsewhere.
Script-geometric, or semi-script, shorthands are based on the ellipse. Semi-script can be considered a compromise between the geometric systems and the script systems. However, the most successful system of this type was Gregg shorthandintroduced by John Robert Gregg in Gregg had studied not only the geometric English systems, but also the German Stolze stenography, a script shorthand.
Systems resembling standard writing[ edit ] Some shorthand systems attempted to ease learning by using characters from the Latin alphabet. Such non-stenographic systems have often been described as alphabetic, and purists might claim that such systems are not 'true' shorthand.
However, these alphabetic systems do have value for students who cannot dedicate the years necessary to master a stenographic shorthand. Alphabetic shorthands cannot be written at the speeds theoretically possible with symbol systems— words per minute or more—but require only a fraction of the time to acquire a useful speed of between 60 and words per minute.
Non-stenographic systems often supplement alphabetic characters by using punctuation marks as additional characters, giving special significance to capitalised letters, and sometimes using additional non-alphabetic symbols. Examples of such systems include StenoscriptSpeedwriting and Forkner shorthand.
However, there are some pure alphabetic systems, including Personal ShorthandSuperWriteEasy Script Speed Writing, and Keyscript Shorthand which limit their symbols to a priori alphabetic characters. These have the added advantage that they can also be typed—for instance, onto a computerPDAor cellphone.
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Early editions of Speedwriting were also adapted so that they could be written on a typewriter, and therefore would possess the same advantage.
Varieties of vowel representation[ edit ] Shorthand systems can also be classified according to the way that vowels are represented. Alphabetic — Expression by "normal" vowel signs that are not fundamentally different from consonant signs e.
Mixed alphabetic — Expression of vowels and consonants by different kinds of strokes e. Abjad — No expression of the individual vowels at all except for indications of an initial or final vowel e. Marked abjad — Expression of vowels by the use of detached signs such as dots, ticks, and other marks written around the consonant signs. Positional abjad — Expression of an initial vowel by the height of the word in relation to the line, no necessary expression of subsequent vowels e.
Abugida — Expression of a vowel by the shape of a stroke, with the consonant indicated by orientation e. Typically, shorthand notes are intended either for immediate use or for later transcription to longhand and are therefore, temporary in nature.
The average person can only write at approximately 30 words per minute. Knowledge of Shorthand aids in the development of skills related to listening, focus, organization, attention to detail and accuracy. It allows for efficiency and organization of thought in that the speaker can free flow their intended content while the person taking the dictation has only to record what is being said.
The original Tironian notes consisted of about 4, signs which over time increased to approximately 13, It was also during this period that teams of ancient scribes would record orations and later compare their notes for the purpose of co-developing written transcriptions.
These formal methods of Shorthand were referred to as stenography close, little, or narrow writingstachygraphy swift writing and brachygraphy short writing. Prior to the invention of recording machines including typewriters and ultimately computers, shorthand was the most widely used method for taking dictation and notes for business correspondence.
Before recording devices, shorthand was vital to businesses, medical communities and the law.
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A good stenographer could make a decent living, and this skill improved the lives of thousands of men and women. At the turn of the 20th C, the mechanization of shorthand became commercially feasible when American stenographer and court reporter Ward Stone Ireland introduced the Stenotype machine. Both the Stenograph and Stenotype machines have keyboards with 22 keys arranged so that the operator, using all fingers and both thumbs, is able to strike any number of keys simultaneously.
The machines print roman letters on a strip of paper that folds automatically into the back of the machine. The operator controls the keys by touch and is thus able to watch the speaker. Although the machines were used in offices to some extent, they were primarily utilized for purposes of court reporting as well as for recording conferences.
There are over 40 shorthand systems in existence worldwide and at least 19 documented inventors of shorthand dating as far back as the late 16th C. Words are written as they sound, not as they are spelled.