B) is relatively uniform throughout the entire continent. C) displays a great . Aksumites enjoyed a relatively cordial relationship with the. A) Jews. B) Patriarch of. In the Americas, relatively dense Neolithic settlements emerged in all of the following areas .. Aksumites enjoyed a relatively cordial relationship with the. Egypt had a long history of relations, including a .. of Normandy, France, a distant relative of Edward's, international peace and security, promote cordial men, can only be enjoyed in such a state; this AD s) Aksumite ruler; he destroyed the Kush .. mental psychologist; he researched the physiology of.
In a seven year span from throughhe completed his B. He resided in a rural Manz, an Amhara area and learned firsthand about the people and their ways. He studied Amharic and could converse with the subjects of his research.
He then became a professor at Haile Selassie I University where he was teaching during the attempted coup in Levine joined the faculty at his alma mater, the University of Chicago, in and rose through the academic ranks to become Professor of Sociology and holder of the endowed Peter B.
He also served as Dean of the College in the s. In his continuing dialogue with and about Ethiopia, Don was open-minded and welcomed different points of view. In the process of doing this, he extended the bounds of understanding and wisdom about that ancient land. He epitomized the great professor of cultural studies: I met Don for the first time when we served as international election observers in Addis Ababa during the general elections.
We subsequently met in Ethiopian-related meetings all over the world, and he was a pleasure to be with. His devotion to searching for the truth about Ethiopia was inspirational. He will be missed. He had a profound influence on Ethiopian studies. As his grad student, mention of his name open doors for me in Ethiopia even in the dark days of the Derg in the mid s. He was the father of American Ethiopianists. His rapacious appetite for all things involving Ethiopia meant that he served on dissertation committees of sociologists of courseanthropologists, religious scholars, historians including myselflinguists, political scientists and probably in a number of other disciplines both here and in Great Britain.
Even simple translation had to either be thrown out or appropriately nuanced. For Don, western univocal translation of texts was like paring down a Rembrandt painting to a charcoal sketch, for he was transfixed by the ambiguity inherent in Amharic, its texture, rich meanings and multiple depths of interpretation. I will miss him. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Ashenaphy Fentie. Google Profile Donal N. Levine, a distinguished and great Ethiopianist of all time just passed away at the age of As far as impartiality, evident history and the common past of the Horn are the concerns, I personally do not know any other single writer, both from Ethiopia and abroad that can be credited like Levine.
He was much more patriotic to Ethiopia than even those Ethiopians, who think they are historians. He actually was one of the very reasons that brought me into the study of history.
History archive at Tadias Magazine
Regarding the history of Ethiopia and the Horn in general, I believe, no other single writer has ever taken us as far as Levine already did. His sociological studies of the Horn conducted in the late s and his related conclusive theory of the study were incredibly proven to be accurate 40 years later, by the young and contemporary science of Population Genetics.
Rest in peace, our hero Donald Nathan Levine. Thank you for your irreplaceable and immortal contributions in the history and sociology of our beloved Ethiopia. He had recently completed another book for publication also on Ethiopia. He had shown me the finished manuscript of that book less than a year ago; hopefully it will see the light of day very soon.
Additionally, he had previously published three major books and numerous articles in professional journals in his field of expertise, social anthropology, that were highly valued by experts in that field.
He was a highly regarded professor of sociology at Chicago University until his retirement a few years ago and continued to do so from time to time, even after his retirement. Many of his Ethiopian friends, including myself, used to call him by that name until the very end.
That pleased him a great deal as one could see from his reaction when called by that name. I will greatly miss Don. He was one of the few friends left from those bygone years. He has now joined the great Ethiopian scholars — Ethiopian as well as foreigners — gone forever from our midst. May he rest in peace! From Alemayehu Fentaw Weldemariam From right: Don, Alex and Hans. Courtesy photo In memoriam: He was a great friend, spiritual father, and mentor.
He sent me money and books on several occasions whenever he finds people traveling to Addis Ababa. He was a frequent interlocutor from a distance and we used to exchange tones of emails between Addis Ababa where I was living and Chicago where he was based. Edited by Ehsan Yarshater. Edited by Jane Damen McAuliffe, et al.
Carl Brockelmann, Geschichte der arabische Litteratur. Grundriss des Arabischen Philologie, 3 vols. Edited by Wolfdietrich Fischer. Fuat Sezgin, Geschichte des arabischen Schriftums. Edited by Edward Sachua. Hossein Modarressi, Tradition and Survival: At first glance, this sect and its eponymous founder may seem to belong to only the most obscure and arcane corners of Islamic history and, therefore, to be of purely antiquarian interest.
More 2 introduction anecdotal than biographical, these accounts also contradict each other a great deal and, as a result, pose manifold historical puzzles that are not easily resolved.
In order to avoid repeating past errors, we shall begin, therefore, with a broader question: All of these studies serve as a reminder of the salience of the topic in the study of Islamic origins. Skizzen und Vorarbeiten Berlin,vi, 1— These sources are diverse, encompassing historical annals, prosopographical compendia, compilations of belle-lettres, and treatises of theological and heresiological dispositions.
The considerable demands that these diverse genres exact from the historian require flexibility in both approach and methodology. As a result, the reader of this study will find that, although essentially united in its topical aim, the various chapters of the present work often assume considerably different approaches depending on the materials given the most preeminent place in any given chapter.
Chapter 1 sets the ground work by reviewing the place of Sayf b. For this reason, I have accorded to his account the honor of first place in my study. His work is also exceptionally early, and given the recent discovery of an incomplete manuscript of his historical writings, it is also of revitalized importance insofar as his work was previously known only through the redactions of later authors.
These chapters have at their heart a twofold aim: Our approach in these chapters, therefore, is both source- and traditioncritical. Firstly, the Sayfian accounts of the activities and beliefs of the sect and its eponymous founder abound with an exceedingly rich and uncannily vivid pallet of detail when compared with the sparser, more laconic accounts of the heresiographical tradition.
Moreover, the Sayfian corpus yields a narrative unique in its presentation and content that, although virtually without parallel, conspicuously employs numerous leitmotifs and tropes present in the heresiographical tradition nonetheless, albeit while discarding others.
Die Umayyaden im Urteil arabischer Autoren des Jahrhunderts, BTS 20 Beirut,— Textbooks and Religion in the Middle East London, Generally speaking, they regarded the Sayfian corpus as a body of materials characterized by fantastic scenarios and implausible events that strained credulity and lacked any basis in historical reality. Dismissing Sayf as undeserving of any role in the repertoire of the modern historian and as an unreliable source for historical information, they regarded much of his material as merely tendentious, invented fictions laced with heavily ideological overtones.
In contrast to both Wellhausen and Massignon, W. In particular, scholars took notice of the important data Sayf preserved on the dynamics of intertribal politics in the garrisons cities Ar.
In more recent elections, several states ended a long winless streak at the ballot box for same-sex marriage, meaning a favorable decision at the Supreme Court may be the final hurdle toward nationalizing the concept.
JANUARY 1 THE SOLEMNITY OF MARY MOTHER OF GOD, New
Next month New York mayor Michael Bloomberg's long-awaited ban on sugary drinks of more than 16 ounces will take effect. Needless to say, those who run restaurants, delis, or even sports venues that fall under the purview of the city's health department by selling food for on-premises consumption are unhappy about the change.
The Korean-American Grocers Association was the first to head to court to try to stop the mayor's regulation from taking effect. As one example, restaurants that deliver pizza would no longer be able to sell two-liter bottles with the meal; instead they'll be forced to sell a package of six 16 ounce bottles at over twice the cost. While Bloomberg enacted his ban on large sugary drinks in the city, he called on the long arm of the state to reach where he cannot and ban retail grocery stores statewide from selling the large drinks.
In the meantime, one can expect stores just outside the border of New York City to see a surge in business from consumers with a big thirst for Liberty. The newly confirmed secretary of state began his illustrious tenure with some laughable moments this week. First, he made up the name of an ally when he praised U. Those "stans" all look alike, we suppose. Next, he explained that we should go ahead and have bilateral talks with Iran over their nuclear weapons program, despite their repeated broken promises and general belligerence.
Gee, why didn't somebody think of that before? Finally, Kerry lectured the Germans about free speech after they voted to ban the Nazi party.
Kerry may not recall, but the Nazis were a tyrannical left-wing party that took over most of Europe 75 years ago and killed millions of innocent people in concentration camps. The German people still live with the weight of that memory, so perhaps they can be forgiven for banning the responsible political party.
Kerry, however, bragged to the Germans that, "As a country, as a society, we [the U. In that case, you're still required to buy health insurance covering them.
Kerry continued, "People have sometimes wondered about why our Supreme Court allows one group or another to march in a parade even though it's the most provocative thing in the world and they carry signs that are an insult to one group or another," for example, neo-Nazis marching in Jewish neighborhoods.
Not to worry, Kerry explained all of his own gaffes when he concluded: The Patriot Post is protected speech pursuant to the "unalienable rights" of all men, and the First and Second Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America.
- History Section
- WHERE ARE YOU?
- MUD SLINGING AT JEWISH PIONEERS ACCUSING US OF THE ARABS' CRIMES. MANY CASES ALONG THE YEARS
In God we trust. Contact The Patriot Post at no-reply patriotpost. Mughrabi fiasco In it, I severely criticized the government's reversal of its decision to replace the Mughrabi Bridge, linking the Western Wall and the Temple Mount. The wooden bridge, built inwhich provides the only access for non- Muslims to the Temple Mount complex, and was always intended to be a temporary structure, was deemed to be in a state of dangerous disrepair in However, when confronted by shrill and wildly unfounded accusations from various Islamic sources that the construction of a new, permanent and structurally safe bridge was intended to cause the collapse of the Dome of the Rock almost half a kilometer away from the planned ramptogether with threats of violence in Israel, and warnings of instability in various Arab states, the government backed down.
The following is from that article: That would be a mistake. It is a malaise that if not soon confronted, will have perilously corrosive consequences This was the announcement on Wednesday to the Knesset by Public Security Minister Yitzhak Aharonovitch that Israel is contemplating the participation of an international investigator in the inquest regarding Arafat Jaradat, the Palestinian detainee, who died in Israeli custody, after being arrested for hurling stones and a Molotov cocktail at Israeli troops.
What made this announcement even more troubling was the fact that it was made a matter of hours after The Jerusalem Post reported that "Israeli officials dismissed on Tuesday a Palestinian Authority demand for an international inquiry into the death of Palestinian detainee Arafat Jaradat as a 'predictable' maneuver and part of a larger strategy to bring the international community into the conflict whenever possible.
It is more than a little disconcerting that he apparently has such a poor grasp of the basic do's and don'ts entailed in the exercise of national sovereignty. Whether he meant it or not, it will be seen as endorsing those who wish to cast the gravest aspersions on Israel and its credibility. It seems to indicate that even after almost seven decades of political independence, the Jewish people has not managed to internalize the cognizance of the inalienable rights that accrue to, and the indispensable duties that are demanded of, a people who wish to maintain and administer their national sovereignty.
Patently preposterous It is patently preposterous to suggest that Israel is not capable of conducting a credible inquiry into the Jarafat incident without international accompaniment. Defense minister Ariel Sharon was forced from office by the all-Israeli Kahan Commission's inquiry into the events relating to massacres conducted by Christian Phalangist forces in the Palestinian camps of Sabra and Shatilla. The head of the Shin Bet Israel Security AgencyAvraham Shalom, along with several other senior members of the organization, was dismissed following the killing of two terroristsbelonging to the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine after their attempt to hijack a busload of civilians was foiled.
True, the investigation process was torturous and flawed, and some might find the presidential pardons granted those involved questionable although they were upheld by the High Courtbut the truth regarding the events was largely exposed without any international intervention.
Finance minister Avraham Hirchson was convicted and imprisoned for embezzlement. One year earlier, justice minister Haim Ramon was convicted for sexual misconduct. InTzachi Hanegbi, who held numerous important ministerial and parliamentary positions, was convicted of perjury.
The president of Israel, Moshe Katsav, was tried and convicted for sexual transgressions, including rape, and is serving a sevenyear sentence. Prime minister Ehud Olmert was forced to step down following a series of charges brought against him. He was convicted of breach of trust and is facing additional bribery charges.
I do not know if anything untoward occurred during Jaradat's incarceration or what in fact led to his demise. However, based on precedent, there can be little doubt that whatever if any penalties are eventually meted out, an all-Israeli inquiry will ferret out the truth.
Israel need take no lessons from anyone in investigating suspicions of malfeasance by any organizational entity or individual. This is precisely why Aharonovitch's inappropriately accommodating declaration entails potentially perilous consequences. Indeed, it could open up a veritable floodgate of initiatives, aimed at neutralizing any autonomy in Israeli decision- making, investigation and inquiry.
License to second guess In effect, it could comprise a license for any alien entity to second-guess every decision taken or conclusion drawn by Israeli authorities.Do therapists get attached to their clients?
For if international participation is called for to accompany the Jaradat affair, why should it not be called on for every other investigation? And if Israeli decisions or verdicts are not sufficient to satisfy foreigners, why should they be so for Israelis?
Let's not forget the context The death of Arafat Jaradat should be fully and fairly investigated. Any improper conduct toward the unfortunate detainee must he unflinchingly addressed. However, in doing so, we should not lose sight of the context. While we might well sympathize with his young children, who lost their father, he was after all, according to numerous sources including the BBC and Al Jazeera, a member of the murderous Al-Aksa Brigades, which have chalked up a long and chilling list of bloody atrocities in which many Israeli civilians were butchered.
The acts he was arrested for are grave. Stones are lethal weapons. Molotov cocktails indisputably are. Hurling them at soldiers should not be lightly dismissed. Indeed, it should be considered an act of attempted homicide. The ineffectiveness of the attempt should not be a mitigating factor in assessing the gravity of the intent. Those involved in such activities should expect to be treated harshly, perhaps even to sustain injuries when being apprehended.
Consider the reaction by some talkbackers to the report on Aharonovitch's announcement, who with variable degrees of courtesy, finesse and grammatical rigor, expressed the follow astute perspectives: Arabs can make Israel jump like a trained seal. It can't say "no" and uphold Jewish sovereignty Any other country on earth would never accept for themselves the "international observer" nonsense Aharonovitch peddled before the Knesset.
It would reject outright all attempts to compromise its independence. What his statement proved again in the face of escalating global anti-Semitism, is that its easy to take the Jew out of the ghetto but its very difficult to take the ghetto out of the Jew!
Until the leaders of the Jewish state realize that the litmus test of good diplomacy is not to get the world to applaud your compliancy and capitulation, but to accept your pursuit of national interests and imperatives, we will not be able to say we have truly extricated ourselves from the clutches of the ghetto mentality.
She writes the "Another Tack" column. This article appeared March 01, and is archived at https: But this anomaly is occasionally recurrent in our little insular setting. Periodically at this time of year the top item on our news purveyors' agenda is likely to be what isn't new: It's as if the whole international community was holding its breath for some obscure Israeli documentary or film short to get the ultimate nod.
All else in Tinseltown's annual pageant is marginal. And so Monday morning's news announcers mournfully informed us that there would be no Oscar for Israel this year. Is our national pride boosted by films that malign us? Are we pained because another Israel-bashing project didn't get the glory that our left wing eagerly sought so as to rub our collective nose in it?
Some of us backward types actually heaved a huge sigh of relief that both Israeli contenders lost. For decades no film that tells our story and presents our case had come out of this country. So after all the accolades expectedly showered in Europe on these latest made-in-Israel defamatory offerings, the only solace left us here is to revel in the fact that the Oscar eluded them.
Their central thematic core is every bit as predictable, cravenly conformist and run-of-the- mill as nearly all Israeli flicks of past decades. Arabs are dedicated patriots, confident in their cause, outspoken in their righteous indignation, vindicated in their umbrage, noble, proud, tough, young, vigorous and deserving of victory. However, when simplistic falsehoods become the single premise, then the overbearing presence of pressure by manipulative group-think must at least be suspected.
Misgivings are further intensified when we realize how many of these one-dimensional productions are subsidized by the Education Ministry's Israel Film Fund. No government dares reduce officialdom's largess to Israel's self-appointed creative emissaries, who blithely batter their country's image at any available film festival abroad.
Hand-in-hand with omnipotent media cliques, our artistes vehemently orchestrate intimidating reputation-trashing onslaughts which no higher-up or administration in recent memory could overcome. Since nothing pro-Israeli can win applause at Cannes or Berlin, the preferences of overseas nabobs must be pandered to in our filmmakers' quest for fame and fortune.
Thus, in order to bask in the limelight of enlightened foreign approval, Israelis enhance the fraudulent Arab narrative. Pleasing the enemy is the one surefire way to make it in Israeli showbiz.