Italy–Russia relations - Wikipedia
Italy–Mexico relations refers to the diplomatic relations between Italy and Mexico. Both nations are members of the G major economies, Organisation for. Italian executives seek to build on close relations with Russia despite sanctions. Home › Briefs on Foreign Relations. Briefs on India and Regional Organizations. Briefs on India's Bilateral Relations. A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N.
Italy is not as interested in the distant eastern neighbourhood as some other member states, and is more concerned with the problems in its own neighbourhood — the refugee crisis in the Mediterranean Sea, Islamist terrorism, and the chaos in Libya.
Moreover, due to its long-term involvement in the Middle East and the Balkans, Moscow actually seems to be a more useful partner for Italy on these issues than the EU. It is unlikely to break ranks any time soon, in spite of economic losses, but this scepticism will only grow as time passes. We are already seeing the effects. This vote is not legally binding, but it is not unimaginable that other regions could stage their own votes on the issue, putting more pressure on the government.
In any case, Washington and Brussels will keep applying pressure on Rome to prevent it breaking the ranks on sanctions. It was also intended as a competitor to the Nabucco pipeline, which was sponsored by Washington and Brussels. Both these projects have since been cancelled. Moscow eventually cancelled it in following obstacles from Bulgaria and the EU, the Ukraine crisis, and the imposition of European sanctions on Russia.
To some Italians, including the current Prime Minister Matteo Renzi, EU resistance to the project seemed like a double standard, particularly during discussions on Nord Stream 2. Energy dependence or inter-dependence? Due to relatively warm winters and falling demand from power plants, Italian gas consumption dropped by one fifth between and 76 to 60 billion cubic metres.
It will take years to recover to pre-financial-crisis levels. The Italian gas market is heavily dependent on imports — mostly from Algeria and Russia in equal measure. However, indecreasing Italian demand for imported gas led to the flow from Algeria being reduced, while flows from Russia increased it was ENI policy to give priority to the relationship with Gazprom.
But is this trading relationship sustainable? If the Italian economy continues to stagnate and unemployment continues to grow according to OECD forecaststhere will inevitably be a reduction in gas imports from Russia as well. While it is commonly said that Europe is over dependent on Russia, it is in fact an inter-dependence. Russia supplies 35 percent of Italian gas imports and 39 percent of EU gas imports, but 90 percent of the total energy exported by Moscow is purchased by Europe alone.Tillerson Talks Russia, Immigration in Mexico
Just as Italy cannot afford to turn its back on Russia as a source of energy in the medium term, nor does Moscow have many alternatives. China is not a realistic alternative to Europe as an energy market for Russia because Beijing wants energy on the cheap and prefers to rely on its own resources coal, nuclear energy rather than depend on Russian gas.
Italy and Russia will likely remain interdependent in the years up to and beyond. Of the 37 nations polled, only in Poland and Jordan does Russia rank among the top three perceived threats to national security. Outside of Poland, most European publics express substantial but not overwhelming concern about their neighbor to the east.
In some instances, concerns about Russia vary by education level. There is a wider education gap in the same direction in the Philippines those with more education are 12 percentage points more likely to see Russia as a threat.
Especially in the United States, political leaning plays a role in views of Russia. Russia viewed unfavorably in many countries Opinions of Russia are more unfavorable than favorable in 19 of the 37 nations outside Russia that were surveyed. Opinion is split in both Tunisia and Lebanon. Within Lebanon, views vary by religious sect: Views of Russia are mixed in Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa, with many people undecided or not offering an opinion.
In both the Philippines and Vietnam, sentiment toward Russia has improved over time.
And Filipinos, led by a president who appears to be shifting alliances away from the U. Views in the U. In the past two years, Republican views have become significantly more positive, while Democratic views are little changed. In 12 nations, those ages 50 and older hold much more negative views of Russia than those 18 to The generation gap is most notable in Japan and Brazil both reveal a point generational gap on favorability of RussiaAustralia 24 points and South Korea 22 points.
A marriage of convenience? The future of Italy–Russia relations
Men also tend to favor Russia more than women: In seven nations, the share of men who feel warmly about Russia is anywhere from 7 to 17 points higher than the share of women who feel the same way. This gender gap is most pronounced in France point gap and Germany 14 points. The relationship between education level and views of Russia varies by region.
In France, the U. However, in Tunisia and Turkey, those with higher levels of education are more likely to feel favorably toward Russia. In North America, people in both the U. In the Middle East, Israel is the only country surveyed where a clear majority does not believe the Putin administration is protecting the rights of Russian citizens.
Across Latin America, publics tend to be divided on the issue. In Argentina and Peru, the share that does not believe personal freedoms are respected in Russia is 11 points higher than the share that thinks they are.