Thirteen Colonies - Wikipedia
But there is another and very relevant way of looking at the relationship between the . Therefore, the nation's economic health was dependent upon merchants who . The 13 British colonies were founded and settled in many different ways. The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of British colonies on the Atlantic coast of North . Traditionally, when we tell the story of “Colonial America,” we are the story of those 13 colonies (New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, many of the nation's landowners were converting farmers' fields into pastures for sheep. James River, where they built a settlement they called Jamestown.
A constitution was drafted and passed on October 30,giving the colonists many rights, including the rights to no taxation without representation. However, upon learning of the constitution, James II declared it void. In May the province briefly became part of the Dominion of New England.
New York's charter and constitution were reinstated soon after. Governor William Tryon and all royal officials were forced from the colony on October 19, Colonial status ended for the new state with the United States Declaration of Independence in July Delaware Colony Delaware changed hands between the Dutch and Swedes between and Because of the large grain exports resulting from this soil, the colonies came to be known as the Bread Basket Colonies.
Pennsylvania became a leading exporter of wheat, corn, ryehempand flax making it the leading food producer in the colonies, and later states, between the years of and Fur trappers moved along these rivers, and there was enough flow to enable milling with water wheel power.
Industry[ edit ] Abundant forests attracted both the lumbering and shipbuilding industries to the Middle Colonies. These industries, along with the presence of deep river estuaries, led to the appearance of important ports like New York and Philadelphia. While the Middle Colonies had far more industry than the Southern Coloniesit still did not rival the industry of New England.
In Pennsylvania, sawmills and gristmills were abundant, and the textile industry grew quickly.
The colony also became a major producer of pig iron and its products, including the Pennsylvania long rifle and the Conestoga wagon. Other important industries included printing, publishing, and the related industry of papermaking.
These coalitions eventually grew into diverse and large political organizations, evolving especially during the French and Indian War.
Many Middle Colony constitutions guaranteed freedom of religion and forbade taxation without representation. Royal governors were arrested or overthrown on more than one occasion, most notably when New Jersey arrested its governor and during Leisler's Rebellion in New York.
Growing unrest in the Middle Colonies eventually led the region to become the meeting place for the Continental Congressand a center for revolution.
In New York's Hudson Valley, however, the Dutch patroons operated very large landed estates and rented land to tenant farmers.
For example, in New York, any foreigner professing Christianity was awarded citizenship, leading to a more diverse populace. As a consequence, early German settlements in the Americas concentrated in the Middle Colonies region. Indentured servitude was especially common in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York in the eighteenth century, though fewer worked in agriculture. German immigration greatly increased aroundand many immigrants began coming from the Rhineland.
They were erroneously labeled the Pennsylvania Dutch the German word for German is "Deutsch"and comprised one-third of the population by the time of the American Revolution. The industry and farming skills they brought with them helped solidify the Middle Colonies' prosperity.
They were noted for tight-knit religious communities, mostly Lutheran but also including many smaller sects such as the MoraviansMennonites and Amish  The Scotch-Irish began immigrating to the Middle Colonies in waves after It was abandoned in He named many locations using approximations of Native American words. The future site of the Pilgrim's first settlement was originally named "Accomack" by Smith. A map published in his work A Description of New England clearly shows the site of the future Pilgrim settlement named "New Plimouth.
They discovered remains of a European fort and uncovered a grave that contained the remains of both an adult European male and a Native American child.
The Pilgrims did not have a patent to settle this area; thus, some passengers began to question their right to land, complaining that there was no legal authority to establish a colony. In response to this, a group of colonists drafted and ratified the first governing document of the colony, the Mayflower Compactwhile still aboard the ship as it lay off-shore.
The intent of the compact was to establish a means of governing the colony, though it did little more than confirm that the colony would be governed like any English town. It did, however, serve the purpose of relieving the concerns of many of the settlers. It was modeled on the church covenants that Congregationalists used to form new congregations. It made clear that the colony should be governed by "just and equal laws," and those who signed it promised to keep these laws.
The immigrants finally set foot on land at what became Provincetown on November The first task was to rebuild a shallopa shallow draft boat that had been built in England and disassembled for transport aboard the Mayflower. It would remain with the Pilgrims while the Mayflower returned to England.
On November 15, Captain Myles Standish led a party of sixteen men on an exploratory mission, during which they disturbed a Native American grave and located a buried cache of Indian corn. He was the first English child born to the Pilgrims in the New World. The shallop was finished on November 27, and a second expedition was undertaken using it, under the direction of Mayflower master Christopher Jones.
Thirty-four men went, but the expedition was beset by bad weather; the only positive result was that they found a Native burial ground and corn that had been intended for the dead, taking the corn for future planting. A third expedition along Cape Cod left on December 6; it resulted in a skirmish with local Native Americans known as the "First Encounter" near modern-day Eastham, Massachusetts. The colonists decided to look elsewhere, having failed to secure a proper site for their settlement, and fearing that they had angered the local Native Americans by robbing their corn stores and firing upon them.
They rejected several sites, including one on Clark's Island and another at the mouth of the Jones Riverin favor of the site of a recently abandoned Native American settlement which had been occupied by the Patuxet.
The settlement would be centered on two hills: Cole's Hill, where the village would be built, and Fort Hill, where a defensive cannon would be stationed. Also important in choosing the site was that the prior Native villagers had cleared much of the land making agriculture relatively easy. Fresh water for the colony was provided by Town Brook and Billington Sea.
There are no contemporaneous accounts to verify the legend, but Plymouth Rock is often hailed as the point where the colonists first set foot on their new homeland. The colonists elected to retain the name for their own settlement, in honor of their final point of departure from England: Bacon On December 21,the first landing party arrived at the site of Plymouth.
Plans to build houses, however, were delayed by bad weather until December As the building progressed, 20 men always remained ashore for security purposes while the rest of the work crews returned each night to the Mayflower.
Religion in the Original 13 Colonies - Under God in the Pledge - jogglerwiki.info
Women, children, and the infirm remained on board the Mayflower, and many had not left the ship for six months. The first structure was a common house of wattle and dauband it took two weeks to complete in the harsh New England winter.
In the following weeks, the rest of the settlement slowly took shape. The living and working structures were built on the relatively flat top of Cole's Hill, and a wooden platform was constructed atop nearby Fort Hill to support the cannon that would defend the settlement. During the winter, the Mayflower colonists suffered greatly from lack of shelter, diseases such as scurvyand general conditions onboard ship.
Thus, only seven residences and four common houses were constructed during the first winter out of a planned The men of the settlement organized themselves into military orders in mid-February, after several tense encounters with local Indians, and Myles Standish was designated as the commanding officer.
By the end of the month, five cannons had been defensively positioned on Fort Hill. On March 16,the first formal contact occurred with the Indians.
Samoset was an Abenaki sagamore who was originally from Pemaquid Point in Maine. He had learned some English from fishermen and trappers in Maine,  and he walked boldly into the midst of the settlement and proclaimed, "Welcome, Englishmen!
Plymouth Colony - Wikipedia
They also learned that one leader of the region was Wampanoag Indian chief Massasoit and they learned about Squanto Tisquantum who was the sole survivor from Patuxet. Squanto had spent time in Europe and spoke English quite well. Samoset spent the night in Plymouth and agreed to arrange a meeting with some of Massasoit's men.
In Massasoit's first contact with the English, several men of his tribe had been killed by English sailors. He also knew that the Pilgrims had taken some corn stores in their landings at Provincetown. He had returned to New England inacting as a guide to explorer Capt.
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Robert Gorgesbut Massasoit and his men had massacred the crew of the ship and had taken Squanto. This treaty ensured that each people would not bring harm to the other, that Massasoit would send his allies to make peaceful negotiations with Plymouth, and that they would come to each other's aid in a time of war. Only four adult women were left alive for the Thanksgiving.
Brownscombe The autumn celebration in late that has become known as "The First Thanksgiving " was not known as such to the Pilgrims. The first "Thanksgiving" as the Pilgrims would have called it referring to solemn ceremony of praise and thanks to God for a congregation's good fortune did not occur untilin response to the good news of the arrival of additional colonists and supplies.
That event probably occurred in July and consisted of a full day of prayer and worship and probably very little revelry. The original festival was probably held in early October and was celebrated by the 53 surviving Pilgrims, along with Massasoit and 90 of his men.
Three contemporaneous accounts of the event survive: For the first few years of colonial life, the fur trade was the dominant source of income, buying furs from Native Americans and selling to Europeans, beyond subsistence farming.
William Bradford was elected to replace him and went on to lead the colony through much of its formative years. On July 2, a party of Pilgrims led by Edward Winslow who later became the chief diplomat of the colony set out to continue negotiations with the chief.
The delegation also included Squanto, who acted as a translator. After traveling for several days, they arrived at Massasoit's capital, the village of Sowams near Narragansett Bay.