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As India's leader from to , Mr. Vajpayee ended a long moratorium on nuclear tests but also eased tensions with Pakistan and built closer ties with. Pakistan Government has no immediate plans to grant Most Favoured Nation ( MFN) status to India. However, it is working out free trade agreements (FTAs) with . Willing to Play 'Constructive Role' in Easing India-Pakistan Relations: China number of ceasefire violations which had made the current situation untenable.
Terrorism and Kashmir — The never ending issues Cross border terrorism has always been an issue. Some analysts go to the extent of saying that both nations are always in a perpetual state of war.
Despite the fact the after the Kargil conflict, there was a Ceasefire Agreement signed inthere have been regular cross border ceasefire violations from the Pakistan side of the border with the trend being as such that since onwards, there has been a rise in the violations with the exception of It has killed and injured security forces as well as civilians on both the sides.
With the regime change in India, there has been a different approach to the violations. With the hardline policy of the new government, there has been massive retaliation to the unprovoked firing. Thus, out of desperation, there has been a rise in the number of infiltrations of terrorists from across the Line of Control LOCwhich has been routine for quite a while now. With the void in between the Kashmiri people and the establishment increasing after the devastating floods ofthere was rising discontent again in the valley.
The trigger to the events was the killing of the militant commander of the terrorist organization Hizb-ul-Mujahideen Burhan Wani, which led to widespread protests in the valley and the situation has been highly volatile ever since with almost daily scenes of protests and stone pelting in the valley.
Pakistan has taken advantage of the situation and has fuelled the protests by providing the elements fighting against the Indian establishment and Forces in the state with all sorts of possible support.
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The PM of Pakistan, in fact, went a step ahead and during the United Nations General Assembly meeting ofdeclared Wani as a martyr and the struggle of the people of Kashmir as an Intifada. This is in sync with the stand Pakistan holds on Kashmir i.
The stand has been rejected by India as it says it is in direct violation of the Shimla Agreement ofwhich clearly mentions that peaceful resolution to all issues will be through bilateral approach. After the attack at the Pathankot base in January, there was again a thaw in the relationship, especially when seen in the context that the Indian PM paid an unscheduled visit to Pakistan to meet his Pakistani counterpart. They were carried out at the end of September.
In a first, India tinkered with the Indus Water Treatya Treaty which has stood the test of time and the bitter sour relationship for more than 55 years and was pondering with the fact to fully exploit the water potential of the West flowing rivers over which Pakistan has control.
On the other hand, Pakistan is ready for a dialogue with India but it wants the inclusion and discussion of the Kashmir issue which it keeps raking up every time. He has been accused by Pakistan of espionage and spying and has been sentenced to death by a military court in Pakistan. India, on many previous occasions, demanded consular access of Jadhav, a demand consistently rejected by Pakistan citing national security issues.
India says that Jadhav was a retired Naval officer who was a businessman working in Iran and has been falsely framed by the Pakistani establishment.
Future of India-Pakistan relationship India and Pakistan are neighbours. Thus, it is in the better of interest of both the nations that they bring all the issues on the drawing board and resolve them amicably. India wants Pakistan to act more strongly on the terrorism being sponsored from its soil. India has genuine concerns, as there are internationally declared terrorists roaming freely in Pakistan and preaching hate sermons as well instigating terror attacks.
With the international community accusing Pakistan of breeding terrorism on its soil, Pakistan cannot remain in denial state and thus, needs to act tougher on terrorism related issues. Positive initiatives which were taken in the past Composite Dialogue Framework, which was started from onwards, excluded, some of the contentious issues between the two sides had resulted in good progress on a number of issues.
Delhi-Lahore Bus service was successful in de-escalating tensions for some time. A couple of important points agreed upon in Ufa were: Discussing ways and means to expedite the Mumbai case trial, including additional information needed to supplement the trial. Ufa Agreement has now become a new starting point of any future India-Pakistan dialogue, which is a major gain for India. A terrorist attack by four heavily armed terrorists on 18 Septembernear the town of Uri in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, killed 18 and left more than 20 people injured.
It was reported as "the deadliest attack on security forces in Kashmir in two decades". India blamed Pakistan for carrying out the attacks, an allegation which Pakistan strongly denied and one that brought both nations to the brink of a nuclear confrontation in — However, international peace efforts ensured the cooling of tensions between the two nuclear-capable nations.
The plane was hijacked on 24 December approximately one hour after take off and was taken to Amritsar airport and then to Lahore in Pakistan. After refueling the plane took off for Dubai and then finally landed in KandaharAfghanistan.
Under intense media pressure, New Delhi complied with the hijackers' demand and freed Maulana Masood Azhar from its captivity in return for the freedom of the Indian passengers on the flight.
The decision, however, cost New Delhi dearly. Maulana, who is believed to be hiding in Karachilater became the leader of Jaish-e-Mohammedan organisation which has carried out several terrorist acts against Indian security forces in Kashmir.
The Fort houses an Indian military unit and a high-security interrogation cell used both by the Central Bureau of Investigation and the Indian Army. The terrorists successfully breached the security cover around the Red Fort and opened fire at the Indian military personnel on duty killing two of them on spot.
The attack was significant because it was carried out just two days after the declaration of the cease-fire between India and Pakistan. The attack was carried out on 25 Septemberjust few days after state elections were held in Jammu and Kashmir.
Two identical letters found on both the terrorists claimed that the attack was done in retaliation for the deaths of thousands of Muslims during the Gujarat riots. Though no terrorist group claimed responsibility for the attacks, Mumbai Police and RAW suspected Lashkar-e-Toiba 's hand in the twin blasts. Before the terrorists could reach the main disputed sitethey were shot down by Indian security forces. One Hindu worshipper and two policemen were injured during the incident.
India-Pakistan relations are now in a bleak phase
This was the first major military standoff between India and Pakistan since the Kargil War in The military buildup was initiated by India responding to a Indian Parliament attack and the Jammu and Kashmir legislative assembly attack.
At least 68 people were killed, mostly Pakistani civilians but also some Indian security personnel and civilians. The sole surviving gunman Ajmal Kasab who was arrested during the attacks was found to be a Pakistani national. This fact was acknowledged by Pakistani authorities. Islamabad resisted the claims and demanded evidence. India provided evidence in the form of interrogations, weapons, candy wrappers, Pakistani Brand Milk Packets, and telephone sets.
They also said that, given the sophistication of the attacks, the perpetrators "must have had the support of some official agencies in Pakistan". India and weapons of mass destructionPakistan and weapons of mass destructionand nuclear race India has a long history of development of nuclear weapons. InIndia's nuclear program was aimed at the development of nuclear weapons, with Indira Gandhi carefully overseeing the development of weapons.
Starting preparations for a nuclear test inIndia finally exploded its first nuclear bomb in Pokhran test range, codename Smiling Buddhain No official announcements of such cold tests were made by Pakistan government.
Ina mutual understanding was reached between the two countries in which each pledged not to attack nuclear facilities. Agreements on cultural exchanges and civil aviation were also initiated, also in Pokhran-II which invited Pakistan to follow the latter's step and performed its own atomic tests see: Talks and other confidence building measures After the war, Pakistan and India made slow progress towards the normalisation of relations.
They signed the Simla Agreementby which India would return all Pakistani personnel over 90, and captured territory in the west, and the two countries would "settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations. The Prime Ministers of Pakistan and India met twice and the foreign secretaries conducted three rounds of talks. In Junethe foreign secretaries identified eight "outstanding issues" around which continuing talks would be focused.
The conflict over the status of Kashmir, referred by India as Jammu and Kashmiran issue since Independence, remains the major stumbling block in their dialogue. It however refuses to abide by the previous part of the resolution, which calls for it to vacate all territories occupied.
In Septemberthe talks broke down over the structure of how to deal with the issues of Kashmir, and peace and security. Pakistan advocated that the issues be treated by separate working groups. India responded that the two issues be taken up along with six others on a simultaneous basis. Attempts to restart dialogue between the two nations were given a major boost by the February meeting of both Prime Ministers in Lahore and their signing of three agreements.
A subsequent military coup in Pakistan that overturned the democratically elected Nawaz Sharif government in October of the same year also proved a setback to relations.
The talks fell through. On 20 Junewith a new government in place in India, both countries agreed to extend a nuclear testing ban and to set up a hotline between their foreign secretaries aimed at preventing misunderstandings that might lead to a nuclear war.
Manmohan Singh become prime minister of India in Maythe Punjab provincial Government declared it would develop Gahhis place of birth, as a model village in his honour and name a school after him. There are two main reasons for this: Moreover, coming under intense international pressure, Islamabad was compelled to take actions against the militants' training camps on its territory.
Inthe two countries also agreed upon decreasing the number of troops present in the region. Under pressure, Kashmiri militant organisations made an offer for talks and negotiations with New Delhi, which India welcomed. India's Border Security Force blamed the Pakistani military for providing cover-fire for the terrorists whenever they infiltrated into Indian territory from Pakistan. Pakistan in turn has also blamed India for providing support to terrorist organisations operating in Pakistan such as the BLA.
InPakistan's information minister, Sheikh Rashid, was alleged to have run a terrorist training camp in in N. The Pakistani government dismissed the charges against its minister as an attempt to hamper the ongoing peace process between the two neighbours.
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Both India and Pakistan have launched several mutual confidence-building measures CBMs to ease tensions between the two. These include more high-level talks, easing visa restrictions, and restarting of cricket matches between the two.
The new bus service between Srinagar and Muzaffarabad has also helped bring the two sides closer. Pakistan and India have also decided to co-operate on economic fronts. Some improvements in the relations are seen with the re-opening of a series of transportation networks near the India—Pakistan border, with the most important being bus routes and railway lines.