Relationship between hinduism islam south asia

Hinduism and Islam |

relationship between hinduism islam south asia

The earliest material evidence of Hinduism in Southeast Asia comes from Borneo , and the relationship between worshiper and divinity was often described as Conversion to Islam was more common in areas where Buddhism had once. Hinduism is a diverse socio-religious way of life of the Hindu people of the Indian subcontinent, .. The national poet of Bangladesh Kazi Nazrul Islam, for example , wrote a lot of Islamic devotional songs for the mainstream of Bengali folk music. Hindus and Muslims have been living together in South Asia for about examples in the history of Hindu-Muslim presence and interaction in the subcontinent. All readings will be available either by online link, by pdf on Coursework.

First among the great names is Allah, never forget to respect it. Allah is verily one, the prophet is verily one. There is neither I nor thou. In honor of the saint he gave his sons the names of Shahji and Sharifji. While a full study of the religious and social ferment of Maharashtra in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries has yet to be made; it seems certain that the new religious life did not take the form of a Hindu revivalism that emphasized the separation of the Hindus from Islam.

Antagonism toward Muslims came later, and, as was the case with the Sikhs, had definite antecedents in particular historical events. The creative spiritual and literary movement provided the basis on which the Maratha nation could be built, and its emergence as the great antagonist of Muslim power in India was based on political, not religious, factors.

Hinduism and Islam - Hinduism - Oxford Bibliographies

The evidence from the songs of Namadeva and Tukaram strongly suggests that they were not reacting in any hostile fashion to Islam. For this reaction one must look to Chaitanya and the Vaishnavite movement in Bengal.

relationship between hinduism islam south asia

Chaitanya — of Bengal represents an aspect of the bhakti movement that is very different from that seen in the lives and teachings of Kabir and his successors. Chaitanya's concern, unlike that of Kabir, was not with bringing people to an understanding of a God beyond all creeds and formulations; it was to exalt the superiority of Krishna over all other deities. The attitude [[]] of Bengal Vaishnavites toward Islam was the antithesis of the attitude advocated by Kabir and Nanak.

Conscious of the appeal being made by Islam, they did not try to reform Hinduism by adopting any of the attractive features of the rival faith. Instead, they emphasized precisely those features, such as devotion to Krishna, which were most antipathetic to the Islamic spirit. Another difference between Chaitanya's movement and that of Kabir is the attitude toward caste. While it is true that Chaitanya made disciples from all classes, one does not find the same note of condemnation of caste as one does in Kabir.

Hindu–Islamic relations - Wikipedia

According to some students of the period, this indicates the essential difference between the two aspects of bhakti in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries: This was not true, however, for Muslim society was deeply influenced by its contacts with Hinduism. Some contacts had been made even before Islamic rule was established in India; for example the probable Hindu element in certain forms of Islamic mysticism, and the intellectual interchanges that had taken place after the conquest of Sind in the seventh and eighth centuries.

During the sultanate, changes of a quite different order were apparent. One of these concerns the lives of converts to Islam. Here the important point to keep in mind is that when one sees Hindu practices followed by Indian Muslims, it is not a case of Hindu influence, but simply of incomplete change from the old way of life. Indian Muslims did not start with orthodox Islam, but began by accepting a few basic features, and only in the course of time, particularly during the last two centuries, have they become more orthodox.

The process is less complete in the lower classes, or those groups which, like the Khojas, adopted a somewhat composite form of religion. More than religious beliefs, Indian Islam retained certain characteristic features of Hindu society which, if not religious in themselves, certainly had [[]] been given religious sanction.


One of these was the place given to caste, with converts clinging to some memory of their former status in a hierarchical society, while what may be called Muslim castes developed as Indian Muslims classified themselves as Sayyid, Shaikh, Mughal, or Pathan.

This structure was never very rigid; as Bernier commented, anyone who put on a white turban called himself a Mughal. An old saying makes the same point: Muslims in India also adopted the Hindu practices of early marriages and of objection to widow remarriage. Some social ceremonies connected with births, deaths, and marriages may also be traced to Hindu origin.

Some writers think that reverence for pirs, or saints, and their graves, a marked feature of popular Indian Islam, is a carry-over of Hindu practices. This interpretation overlooks the fact, however, that even outside India pirs and their tombs are objects of great attention and veneration. The main influence of Hinduism on Islam, however, is probably seen not so much in these specific instances as in a general softening of the original attitude of the conquerors, particularly the Turks, in religious matters.

This softening is to be seen partly as a movement of Hindu attitudes toward the universe into Islamic thought; it is also partly a recognition of the position of Islam in India. More striking than the amount of interaction that took place in the first three centuries of Muslim rule was the fact that there was not more.

relationship between hinduism islam south asia

The impression one gains is that there was never a very conscious attempt to create understanding, except on the part of Kabir and Nanak, and that the contacts between the two great religions were, on the whole, remarkably superficial as far as the total life of the country was concerned. Writing inbefore the full tide of conquest had begun, Al-Biruni spoke of how the Hindus differed from the Muslims in every respect, and, because of the raids by Mahmud of Ghazni, "cherish the most inveterate aversion toward all Muslims.

  • Diasporic Hinduism
  • The rise of devotional Hinduism (4th–11th century)
  • Other Subject Areas

For Hindus, there could be no intermarriage with Muslims nor even interdining. If a Muslim is fed out of their vessels, they either break the vessels or give them away to the Muslims. The tenacity with which attempts continued to be made to establish links between the two religions is a dominant theme in the cultural history of the Mughals, the new group who entered India at the beginning of the sixteenth century.

Arrianthe Greek historian who chronicled India about the time of Alexander the Greatwrote in his Indika, [78] The Indians do not even use aliens as slaves, much less a countryman of their own. Some scholars translate this as slave, [79] while other scholars have translated it as servant and religious devotee. Arthashastra grants a dasa legal rights, and declares abusing, hurting and raping a dasa as a crime.

The dedication takes place in a Pottukattu ceremony which is similar in some ways to marriage. Originally, in addition to taking care of the temple and performing rituals, these women learned and practiced Sadir BharatanatyaOdissi and other classical Indian artistic traditions and enjoyed a high social status as dance and music were essential part of temple worship.

This leads to death via bleeding. Beef is a sought after meat among Muslims, but they strictly avoid pork and alcohol. However, food habits are left as a choice for Hindus.

Islam in South Asia

There are varied opinions regarding the permissibility of eating meat in Hinduismdepending upon the interpretation of the Hindu scriptures. Vegetarianism is a choice for most Hindus, although some sects emphasize vegetarianism.

Some Hindus consider violence against animals, that is used to produce any meat, so unacceptable that they avoid eating with non-vegetarians. Most observant Hindus strictly avoid cow-based beef, but some may eat water buffalo-based beef. Jhatka is meat from an animal that has been killed instantly, such as by a single strike of a sword or axe to sever the head, as opposed to ritualistically slow slaughter kutha in the halal method dhabihah.

relationship between hinduism islam south asia

There is a vast body of literature on Islam in Tamil composed over almost a thousand years. The early 19th-century Sira Puranama biography of the Prophet Muhammadis an excellent example. These mark shrines for revered Muslim frequently Sufi leaders and are visited by both Muslims and Hindus. Moreover, close proximity and daily interaction throughout the centuries has led to efforts to accommodate the existence of the two religions.

Various syntheses between the two religions that emphasize nonsectarianism have arisen in northern India. Yet there were periods when the political ambitions of Islamic rulers took strength from iconoclastic aspects of Muslim teaching and led to the devastation of many major Hindu temple complexes, from Mathura and Varanasi Banaras in the north to Chidambaram, Sriringam, and Madurai in the far south; other temples were converted to mosques.

Episodically, since the 14th century this history has provided rhetorical fuel for Hindu anger against Muslim rulers. The bloody partition of the South Asian subcontinent into India and Pakistan in added a new dimension. The continuing tensions in the Kashmir region have also spawned outbursts of sectarian violence on both sides, including the destruction of some Hindu temples there by militant Muslims.

Yet, although the relationship between Hindus and Muslims within India remains complicated and there are occasional eruptions of tension and violence, in many areas they have been able to coexist peacefully. Hinduism and Christianity Relations between Hinduism and Christianity have been shaped by unequal balances of political power and cultural influence. Although communities of Christians have lived in southern India since the middle of the 1st millennium, the great expansion of Indian Christianity followed the efforts of missionaries working under the protection of British colonial rule.

Their denigration of selected features of Hindu practice—most notably image worshipsutteeand child marriage the first two were also criticized by Muslims —was shared by certain Hindus.