Relationships between locus of control and adherence to diabetes regimen in a sample of Iranians
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For a review of the health questionnaires cited by these authors, see "Applications" below. The Duttweiler Internal Control Index ICI addresses perceived problems with the Rotter scales, including their forced-choice format, susceptibility to social desirability and heterogeneity as indicated by factor analysis. She also notes that, while other scales existed in to measure locus of control, "they appear to be subject to many of the same problems".
The ICI assess variables pertinent to internal locus: A small student-subject validation study indicated that the scale had good internal reliability a Cronbach's alpha of 0.
The topic of attribution theory introduced to psychology by Fritz Heider has had an influence on locus of control theory, but there are important historical differences between the two models. Attribution theorists have been predominantly social psychologistsconcerned with the general processes characterizing how and why people make the attributions they do, whereas locus of control theorists have been concerned with individual differences.
Significant to the history of both approaches are the contributions made by Bernard Weiner in the s. Before this time, attribution theorists and locus of control theorists had been largely concerned with divisions into external and internal loci of causality. Weiner added the dimension of stability-instability and later controllabilityindicating how a cause could be perceived as having been internal to a person yet still beyond the person's control.
The stability dimension added to the understanding of why people succeed or fail after such outcomes. Although not part of Weiner's model, a further dimension of attribution, that of globality-specificity, was added by Abramson, Seligman and Teasdale. Applications[ edit ] Locus of control's best known application may have been in the area of health psychologylargely due to the work of Kenneth Wallston.
Scales to measure locus of control in the health domain were reviewed by Furnham and Steele in In discussing applications of the concept to health psychology Furnham and Steele refer to Claire Bradley's work, linking locus of control to the management of diabetes mellitus. Empirical data on health locus of control in a number of fields was reviewed by Norman and Bennett in ; they note that data on whether certain health-related behaviors are related to internal health locus of control have been ambiguous.
They note that some studies found that internal health locus of control is linked with increased exercise, but cite other studies which found a weak or no relationship between exercise behaviors such as jogging and internal health locus of control.
A similar ambiguity is noted for data on the relationship between internal health locus of control and other health-related behaviors such as breast self-examinationweight control and preventative-health behavior. Of particular interest are the data cited on the relationship between internal health locus of control and alcohol consumption. Norman and Bennett note that some studies that compared alcoholics with non-alcoholics suggest alcoholism is linked to increased externality for health locus of control; however, other studies have linked alcoholism with increased internality.
Similar ambiguity has been found in studies of alcohol consumption in the general, non-alcoholic population. They are more optimistic in reviewing the literature on the relationship between internal health locus of control and smoking cessationalthough they also point out that there are grounds for supposing that powerful-others and internal-health loci of control may be linked with this behavior.
Relationships between locus of control and adherence to diabetes regimen in a sample of Iranians
It is thought that, rather than being caused by one or the other, that alcoholism is directly related to the strength of the locus, regardless of type, internal or external. They argue that a stronger relationship is found when health locus of control is assessed for specific domains than when general measures are taken. Overall, studies using behavior-specific health locus scales have tended to produce more positive results.
For example, Weiss and Larsen found an increased relationship between internal health locus of control and health when health value was assessed. HIVmigrainesdiabeteskidney disease and epilepsy. Students who were more internally controlled believed that hard work and focus would result in successful academic progress, and they performed better academically. Those students who were identified as more externally controlled believing that their future depended upon luck or fate tended to have lower academic-performance levels.
Whyte researched how control tendency influenced behavioral outcomes in the academic realm by examining the effects of various modes of counseling on grade improvements and the locus of control of high-risk college students.
For internals, gambling is more reserved. When betting, they primarily focus on safe and moderate wagers. Externals, however, take more chances and, for example, bet more on a card or number that has not appeared for a certain period, under the notion that this card or number has a higher chance of occurring. Richard Kahoe has published work in the latter field, suggesting that intrinsic religious orientation correlates positively and extrinsic religious orientation correlates negatively with internal locus.
The authors distinguished between an active spiritual-health locus of control in which "God empowers the individual to take healthy actions"  and a more passive spiritual-health locus of control where health is left up to God. In industrial and organizational psychologyit has been found that internals are more likely to take positive action to change their jobs rather than merely talk about occupational change than externals.
For example, Martin, Veer and Pervan examined how the weight locus of control of women i. They found that women who believe they can control their weight "internals"respond most favorably to slim models in advertising, and this favorable response is mediated by self-referencing.
In contrast, women who feel powerless about their weight "externals"self-reference larger-sized models, but only prefer larger-sized models when the advertisement is for a non-fattening product. For fattening products, they exhibit a similar preference for larger-sized models and slim models.
The weight locus of control measure was also found to be correlated with measures for weight control beliefs and willpower. In the U. Presidential election, research of college students found that those with an internal locus of control were substantially more likely to register as a Republican, while those with an external locus of control were substantially more likely to register as a Democrat.
Those with an internal locus of control are more likely to be of higher socioeconomic status, and are more likely to be politically involved e. In contrast, externals are typically associated with lower socioeconomic status. Societies experiencing social unrest increase the expectancy of being out-of-control; therefore, people in such societies become more external. At least one study has found that children whose parents had an external locus of control are more likely to attribute their successes and failures to external causes.
Locus of control becomes more internal with age. As children grow older, they gain skills which give them more control over their environment. However, whether this or biological development is responsible for changes in locus is unclear.Internal vs. External Locus of Control
Indeed, there is evidence here that changes in locus of control in later life relate more visibly to increased externality rather than reduced internality if the two concepts are taken to be orthogonal. Evidence cited by Schultz and Schultz suggests that locus of control increases in internality until middle age.
The authors also note that attempts to control the environment become more pronounced between ages eight and fourteen.
Each day we are exposed to potential diseases that may affect our health. The way we approach that reality has a lot to do with our locus of control. Sometimes it is expected to see older adults experience progressive declines in their health, for this reason it is believed that their health locus of control will be affected.
Age plays an important role in one's internal and external locus of control. Also this research show that internal locus of control in the first year girl student who didn't select any pattern for themselves, is reduced. In relation with locus of control and planning for activity, Lamber, Moore and Dixonstated that the best kind of targeting based on the locus of control of athlete.
Before targeting is started on an activity, it is necessary that first locus of control of athlete determine by using test. Due to the locus of control of the individuals ,the purpose kind of plan should be determine. Individuals with internal locus of control should be applied in setting purposes While who have external locus of control should be equipped by a educator' purposes.
Since having people with physical and mental health guarantee the performance and self-blooming of a society. Recognition of personality characteristics which leads individuals to do sport activities or escape from it, have important rote in healthy and educational decision making.
In one side a better recognition of personality differences of athletic and non athletic individuals help us in providing possibilities proportional with abilities and physical and mental need, of athletes in order to great development in their performance and make non athletics interested in sport activities.
Also research in the context of personality characteristic, give valuable in formation that can be effective for training and treating planning and also training and treating planning and also prevention and treating planning and also prevention of occurrence of mental abnormalities among feeling of loneliness, in addition to this, it provides useful information for teachers and educators of physical education until they can do better the selection of players, public guidance for selectors special field and way of effective instruction by having complete recognition.
In other side development of sport culture among general pooper the society need such researches. Materials and Methods Statistical society of research includes au athletic and non athletic girls of Karaj Islamic Azad university persons the statistical sample of this research involve persons of statistical society which include 60 athletic girls and 60 non athletic girls who are selected randomly.
The athletic girl participants were considered who had at least 3 years history of playing and regular practice in one of the team field volleyball, Basketball or football who were in the rang of age years in practices of sport teams of karaj university and the non athletic girls who participated in the physical education class and were at years old.
The method of present research was comparison correlation. In this research internal-external locus of control and feeling of loneliness among athletic and nonathletic girls was studied and analyzed to determine the portion of each variable in these relationship variables of research.
Research transitive A Feeling of loneliness: This measure includes 20 questions, related to the feeling of loneliness of individuals. Based on this measure, acquisition the higher scores is a sign of more rate of feeling of loneliness. B Internal locus of control Ithis variable has 8 matters and measures the rate of individual's beliefs to this subject that they themselves control their life.
The high score in this rate is belong to individuals who imagine that heir success and defeats are determine by their own actions and ability internal or personal factors and they feel such that they have influence on the results of their actions and the positive life events are obtained as a result of their own attempt and plans. So they make themselves responsible of their action behavior, results and consequent.
C Locus of control with tendency to powerful people P: This variable also has 8 matters that are measured in relation with the perception of control by powerful people. D locus of control with tendency to chance c: This measure is performed for different age reaps and different job section.
The measures which were used before compiling this test, they had less validity and consistency be cause of being long questions and they can't obtained exact results be cause of boring, so by using the form of loneliness UCLA.
The mentioned problems were removed internal ideate of questions if measure was 0. Against each sentence based on main form there are 4 options never, rarely, sometimes and usually that each of then scored as rated such that score 1 is be conge to option Never the score 4 is be conge to option usually in this measure some quieting, are scored inversely.
Based on this way of scoring, getting more scores in this measure is a sign of more of the feeling of loneliness in subject. The mining of school that subject can get is 20 and its maximum Total score for each variable I,P,C is sum of scores of each subject in 8 months related to that second measure that is summed with 24 to remove its probably negative sign. So in each measurement the scope will be from 0 up to The high scores in each second measure is interpreted in this way that individual has high expectation of control by root considered.
Locus of control - Wikipedia
The statistical method for analyzing data Regarding to this fact that present research study the relationship and comparison the feeling of loneliness and locus of control I,P,C in the athletic and non athletic girls the kind of research is correlation.
Software SPSS was used for analyzing data. First Smearnove Clomogroph test was used for determining natural or unnatural status of data distribution. Then Pearson correlation coefficient was used for study the relation between variables in both groups and t-test of independent two groups was used in order to study the difference between averages of variables.
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Results The following figures show the variables average feeling of loneliness, internal locus of control, external locus of control with tendency to chance and external locus of control source with tendency to powerful people in both groups. Characteristic of the feeling of loneliness and locus of control I, P, C in both subject groups Figure 1. Comparison of the feeling of loneliness in subjects Figure 2. Comparison of average of internal locus of control in both groups Figure 3.
Comparison of external locus of control tendency to chance in subjects Figure 4. Comparison of mean of external locus of control tendency to powerful people in subjects Table 2.
Results of t-test in both groups Table 3. Correlation between feeling of loneliness and locus of control internal-external in both groups After statistical analyzing data based on Pearson correlation coefficient and t-test of independent two groups the following results were obtained: Discussion and Conclusion Sport environment have highest and more quality of experience for people in the youth period.
The concept of "self" in this course is accompany with more mental and physical changes in the form of extremely and variety experience in this course can change "self" in different methods and direction. This change in "self" can create some personality features.