relationship between variables. variables). –Two categorical variables ( nominal or ordinal). –One categorical and In SPSS, got to Graphs > Chart Builder. Judging from the brief description of your study proposal, I believe you intend to measure the effect of two categorical variables (effect of product and effect of. For 2 × 2 tables, Fisher's exact test is computed when a table that does not result from A symmetric measure of association between two ordinal variables that.

## Crosstabs statistics

Your two variables should be measured on an ordinal, interval or ratio scale. Examples of ordinal variables include Likert scales e. You can learn more about ordinal, interval and ratio variables in our article: There is a monotonic relationship between the two variables. A monotonic relationship exists when either the variables increase in value together, or as one variable value increases, the other variable value decreases.

Whilst there are a number of ways to check whether a monotonic relationship exists between your two variables, we suggest creating a scatterplot using SPSS Statistics, where you can plot one variable against the other, and then visually inspect the scatterplot to check for monotonicity. Your scatterplot may look something like one of the following: The relationship displayed in your scatterplot should be monotonic. In our enhanced guides, we show you how to: Just remember that if you do not test these assumptions correctly, the results you get when running a Spearman's correlation might not be valid.

This is why we dedicate a number of sections of our enhanced Spearman's correlation guide to help you get this right. You can find out about our enhanced content as a whole hereor more specifically, learn how we help with testing assumptions here. Spearman's correlation determines the degree to which a relationship is monotonic. You can see the page Choosing the Correct Statistical Test for a table that shows an overview of when each test is appropriate to use. In deciding which test is appropriate to use, it is important to consider the type of variables that you have i.

About the hsb data file Most of the examples in this page will use a data file called hsb2, high school and beyond. This data file contains observations from a sample of high school students with demographic information about the students, such as their gender femalesocio-economic status ses and ethnic background race.

## What statistical analysis should I use? Statistical analyses using SPSS

It also contains a number of scores on standardized tests, including tests of reading readwriting writemathematics math and social studies socst.

You can get the hsb data file by clicking on hsb2.

One sample t-test A one sample t-test allows us to test whether a sample mean of a normally distributed interval variable significantly differs from a hypothesized value. For example, using the hsb2 data filesay we wish to test whether the average writing score write differs significantly from We can do this as shown below.

The mean of the variable write for this particular sample of students is We would conclude that this group of students has a significantly higher mean on the writing test than One sample median test A one sample median test allows us to test whether a sample median differs significantly from a hypothesized value.

### What statistical analysis should I use? Statistical analyses using SPSS

We will use the same variable, write, as we did in the one sample t-test example above, but we do not need to assume that it is interval and normally distributed we only need to assume that write is an ordinal variable. Binomial test A one sample binomial test allows us to test whether the proportion of successes on a two-level categorical dependent variable significantly differs from a hypothesized value.

Chi-square goodness of fit A chi-square goodness of fit test allows us to test whether the observed proportions for a categorical variable differ from hypothesized proportions. We want to test whether the observed proportions from our sample differ significantly from these hypothesized proportions. Two independent samples t-test An independent samples t-test is used when you want to compare the means of a normally distributed interval dependent variable for two independent groups.

For example, using the hsb2 data filesay we wish to test whether the mean for write is the same for males and females. Because the standard deviations for the two groups are similar In other words, females have a statistically significantly higher mean score on writing