Risk-Return relationship in investments
The risk and return constitute the framework for taking investment decision. is enough to say that they are not only interested in the maximization of return, Above chart-A represent the relationship between risk and return. The risk-return relationship had been stood on its head. note that managers these days rarely say they “own” or “do not own” a stock. Instead. Decision making, Behavioral decision theory, Risk-return relationship, Risk- return The Swedish Staffing Agencies () says that staffing and recruitment.
Also, the period of time that an investment pays a set rate of interest.
BondBond A kind of loan you make to the government or a company. They use the money to run their operations.
In turn, you get back a set amount of interest once or twice a year. If you hold bonds until the maturity date, you will get all your money back as well. As a shareholderShareholder A person or organization that owns shares in a corporation. May also be called a investor.
But if the company is successful, you could see higher dividends and a rising shareShare A piece of ownership in a company. But it does let you get a share of profits if the company pays dividends. Some investments, such as those sold on the exempt market are highly speculative and very risky. They should only be purchased by investors who can afford to lose all of the money they have invested. DiversificationDiversification A way of spreading investment risk by by choosing a mix of investments.
The idea is that some investments will do well at times when others are not. May include stocks, bonds and mutual funds. The equity premium Treasury bills issued by the Canadian government are so safe that they are considered to be virtually risk-free.
The government is unlikely to default on its debtDebt Money that you have borrowed. You must repay the loan, with interest, by a set date. For any particular investment type, the line drawn from the risk-free rate on the vertical axis to the risk-return point for that investment has a slope called the Sharpe ratio. Short-term loans to good government bodies[ edit ] On the lowest end is short-dated loans to government and government-guaranteed entities usually semi-independent government departments.
The lowest of all is the risk-free rate of return.
The risk-free rate has zero risk most modern major governments will inflate and monetise their debts rather than default upon thembut the return is positive because there is still both the time-preference and inflation premium components of minimum expected rates of return that must be met or exceeded if the funding is to be forthcoming from providers. The risk-free rate is commonly approximated by the return paid upon day or their equivalent, but in reality that rate has more to do with the monetary policy of that country's central bank than the market supply conditions for credit.
Mid- and long-term loans to good government bodies[ edit ] The next types of investment is longer-term loans to government, such as 3-year bonds. The range width is larger, and follows the influence of increasing risk premium required as the maturity of that debt grows longer. Nevertheless, because it is debt of good government the highest end of the range is still comparatively low compared to the ranges of other investment types discussed below. Also, if the government in question is not at the highest jurisdiction i.
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Short-term loans to blue-chip corporations[ edit ] Following the lowest-risk investments are short-dated bills of exchange from major blue-chip corporations with the highest credit ratings.
The further away from perfect the credit rating, the higher up the risk-return spectrum that particular investment will be.
Mid- and long-term loans to blue-chip corporations[ edit ] Overlapping the range for short-term debt is the longer term debt from those same well-rated corporations. These are higher up the range because the maturity has increased. The overlap occurs of the mid-term debt of the best rated corporations with the short-term debt of the nearly perfectly, but not perfectly rated corporations. In this arena, the debts are called investment grade by the rating agencies.
The lower the credit rating, the higher the yield and thus the expected return. Rental property[ edit ] A commercial property that the investor rents out is comparable in risk or return to a low-investment grade.
Industrial property has higher risk and returns, followed by residential with the possible exception of the investor's own home. High-yield debt[ edit ] After the returns upon all classes of investment-grade debt come the returns on speculative-grade high-yield debt also known derisively as junk bonds. These may come from mid and low rated corporations, and less politically stable governments.
Equity[ edit ] Equity returns are the profits earned by businesses after interest and tax.
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Even the equity returns on the highest rated corporations are notably risky. Small-cap stocks are generally riskier than large-cap ; companies that primarily service governments, or provide basic consumer goods such as food or utilities, tend to be less volatile than those in other industries.
Note that since stocks tend to rise when corporate bonds fall and vice versa, a portfolio containing a small percentage of stocks can be less risky than one containing only debts.
Options and futures[ edit ] Option and futures contracts often provide leverage on underlying stocks, bonds or commodities; this increases the returns but also the risks. Note that in some cases, derivatives can be used to hedgedecreasing the overall risk of the portfolio due to negative correlation with other investments.
For example, the more risky the investment the more time and effort is usually required to obtain information about it and monitor its progress.