Sumatran orangutan relationship to other families

Orangutan Behavior – Orangutan Foundation InternationalOrangutan Foundation International

sumatran orangutan relationship to other families

The orangutans are three extant species of great apes native to Indonesia and Malaysia. . Following humans and chimpanzees, the Sumatran orangutan became the third . Orangutans live a more solitary lifestyle than the other great apes. . They compared geographic variations in tool use related to the processing of. It is perfect orangutan habitat because the rainforest figs and other wild fruit are “The Iban–orangutan relationship in Batang Ai is a special case,” says . Today, the Sumatran orangutan, Pongo abelii, is found only in. The three species look slightly different: Sumatran orangutans have lighter Orangutans also differ from the other Great Apes in that they do not live in family groups. The relationship between a mother and her child lasts for many years, but.

Orangutan females rarely exhibit violent aggression of the sort seen in combat, and hence do not sustain such injuries.

sumatran orangutan relationship to other families

Orangutans have the slowest known life histories of any mammal. They take the longest time to grow up and they are the slowest to reproduce. The gestation period is approximately eight and a half months. Twinning occurs but is rare. In forty years of observation, twins were only seen once at Tanjung Puting National Park.

The mother was an older, free-ranging, wild born ex-captive orangutan. One of the twins was born weak and died shortly after birth. Wild female orangutans usually become sexually active at approximately 12 years, but they will often have their first offspring only at years of age.

At Tanjung Puting wild females give birth on average every 7. Infant orangutans stay in close contact with their mothers for a long time. They also use leafy branches to shelter themselves from rain and sun, and sometimes even drape large leaves over themselves like a poncho.

Even when young orangutans are too old to be carried and fed by their mother, they may still remain close to her, traveling with her, eating, and resting in the same trees, until they are about 10 years old. Once they become independent, they will be alone or in the company of other immature orangutans. Such prolonged association between mother and offspring is rare among mammals.

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Probably only humans have a more intensive relationship with their mothers. Young orangutans learn almost everything from their mothers, including: Also, mothers probably protect young orangutans from predators such as clouded leopards and pythons in Borneo, and tigers in Sumatra.

A flanged male has big cheek pads on the sides of his face and a large pendulous throat sack under his chin. An unflanged male has neither of these traits, and his body is usually smaller. Unflanged males are sexually mature and fully able to father offspring; females, however, seem to prefer to mate with the flanged males. It is not fully understood exactly when and why a mature male undergoes the transformation from unflanged to flanged, or even if every male undergoes this transformation although it seems likely that he does eventually.

Thus, not until the dominant flanged male dies, moves away, or is defeated, or the subadult male himself moves away or stays low, can the unflanged male develop his cheek pads and large size.

Only humans have a more intensive relationship with their mothers. Most of their lives are spent in trees where orangutans travel from branch to branch by climbing, clambering, and brachiating. Although mostly arboreal, males in Borneo occasionally travel on the ground to move between stands of trees. At Tanjung Puting adult males have traveled over two miles on the ground during the course of a day.

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Many people are familiar with the studies that have shown chimpanzees using tools, such as termite-fishing sticks. Recent studies show that some populations of orangutans also fashion tools to aid in the difficult task of foraging for food. Some might say orangutans have four hands instead of two hands and two feet. This makes them graceful and agile while climbing through the trees but it makes walking on the ground somewhat slow and awkward.

Sumatran orangutan

That is why the orangutan is at a great disadvantage on the ground, and why the orangutan rarely comes down from the treetops. Their food is there, their home is there and they are safer there. Putri and her baby. Photo courtesy of the Orangutan Kutai Project. The orangutan has the longest childhood dependence on the mother of any animal in the world, because there is so much for a young orangutan to learn in order to survive.

sumatran orangutan relationship to other families

The babies nurse until they are about six years of age. The young males may stay close by their mothers for a few more years but the females may stay until they are into their teens, allowing them to observe mothering skills as they watch their younger sibling being raised by the mother.

Orangutan females only give birth about once every 8 years — the longest time between births of any mammal on earth. This results in only 4 to 5 babies in her lifetime.

This is why orangutan populations are very slow to recover from disturbance. Food is often scarce in the rain forest and that is why the orangutan is a semi-solitary creature. In times of great abundance of food, orangutans may use the opportunity to socialize and gather in small groups.

sumatran orangutan relationship to other families

Their diet is made up of bark, leaves, flowers, a variety of insects, and most importantly, over kinds of fruit. The mothers must teach the babies what food to eat, where to find that food, in which trees and during which seasons.

sumatran orangutan relationship to other families

It is thought that the orangutan must have a very detailed map of the forest in her mind, and detailed knowledge of the fruiting cycles of many species of trees. This prevents wasting valuable energy searching for fruit trees randomly, and traveling to a certain fruiting tree whose fruits will not ripen for some time. The babies must eventually know hundreds of species of plants and trees, which ones are edible, and how to process them; some are very difficult to eat because they are protected by sharp spines and shells.

Unique features of male orangutans compared with females: