Japan–Russia relations - Wikipedia
Russia's current disputes with the United States and the European Union over its actions in the Ukraine are straining other international. Strains in Japan-Soviet Union relations had deep historical roots, going back to of war between Japan and Russia existed technically because the government and which try to complicate relations between states, including our countries.". In late July, Japan and Russia hosted a “2+2” ministerial meeting in at least complicate, the growing strategic ties between Russia and China.
Post of USSR, Despite divergence on the territorial question, on which neither side was prepared to give ground, Japan's relations with the Soviet Union improved appreciably after the mids.
Japan - Relations with Russia
The Soviet government began to seek Japanese cooperation in its economic development plans, and the Japanese responded positively. The two countries signed a five-year trade agreement in January and a civil aviation agreement as well.
Economic cooperation expanded rapidly during the s, despite an often strained political relationship. The two economies were complementary, for the Soviet Union needed Japan's capital, technology, and consumer goods, while Japan needed Soviet natural resources, such as oilgascoal, iron oreand timber. Japanese-Soviet political relations during the s were characterized by the frequent exchange of high-level visits to explore the possibility of improving bilateral relations and by repeated discussions of a peace treaty, which were abortive because neither side was prepared to yield on the territorial issue.
Brezhnevgeneral secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unionwere held in Moscow during the next three years, but the deadlock on the territorial issue continued, and prospects for a settlement dimmed. Moscow began to propose a treaty of friendship and goodwill as an interim step while peace treaty talks were continued. This proposal was firmly rejected by Japan.
Strains on relations[ edit ] Afterthe Soviet Union began openly to warn that a Japanese peace treaty with China might jeopardize Soviet—Japan relations. In JanuaryGromyko again visited Tokyo to resume talks on the peace treaty.
When the Japanese again refused to budge on the territorial question, Gromyko, according to the Japanese, offered to return two of the Soviet-held island areas—the Habomai Islands and Shikotan —if Japan would sign a treaty of goodwill and cooperation. He also reportedly warned the Japanese, in a reference to China, against "forces which come out against the relaxation of tension and which try to complicate relations between states, including our countries.
Despite Japanese protestations that the treaty's antihegemony clause was not directed against any specific country, Moscow saw it as placing Tokyo with Washington and Beijing firmly in the anti-Soviet camp. Officially, both sides continued to express the desire for better relations, but Soviet actions served only to alarm and alienate the Japanese side. The s saw a decided hardening in Japanese attitudes toward the Soviet Union. Japan was pressed by the United States to do more to check the expansion of Soviet power in the developing world following the December Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
It responded by cutting off contacts beneficial to the Soviet regime and providing assistance to "front line" states, such as Pakistan and Thailand. Under Prime Minister Yasuhiro NakasoneJapan worked hard to demonstrate a close identity of views with the Reagan administration on the "Soviet threat". Japan steadily built up its military forces, welcomed increases in United States forces in Japan and the western Pacific, and pledged close cooperation to deal with the danger posed by Soviet power.
This economic cooperation was interrupted by Japan's decision in to participate in sanctions against the Soviet Union for its invasion of Afghanistan and by its actions to hold in abeyance a number of projects being negotiated, to ban the export of some high-technology items, and to suspend Siberian development loans.
Subsequently, Japanese interest in economic cooperation with the Soviet Union waned as Tokyo found alternative suppliers and remained uncertain about the economic viability and political stability of the Soviet Union under Gorbachev.
The stationing of Soviet military forces on the islands gave tangible proof of the Soviet threat, and provocative maneuvers by Soviet air and naval forces in Japanese-claimed territory served to reinforce Japanese official policy of close identification with a firm United States-backed posture against Soviet power.
Inthe Japanese government specifically protested a buildup in Soviet forces in Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan. The advent of the Mikhail Gorbachev regime in Moscow in saw a replacement of hard-line Soviet government diplomats who were expert in Asian affairs with more flexible spokespersons calling for greater contact with Japan.
Gorbachev took the lead in promising new initiatives in Asia, but the substance of Soviet policy changed more slowly. In particular, throughout the rest of the s, Soviet officials still seemed uncompromising regarding the Northern Territories, Soviet forces in the western Pacific still seemed focused on and threatening to Japan, and Soviet economic troubles and lack of foreign exchange made prospects for Japan-Soviet Union economic relations appear poor.
ByJapan appeared to be the least enthusiastic of the major Western-aligned developed countries in encouraging greater contacts with and assistance to the Soviet Union.
The government stated that it would not conduct normal relations with the Soviet Union until Moscow returned the Northern Territories. The government and Japanese business leaders stated further that Japanese trade with and investment in the Soviet Union would not grow appreciably until the Northern Territories issue has been resolved.
Dissolution of the USSR[ edit ] The Soviet government also stepped up its diplomacy toward Japan with the announcement in that Gorbachev would visit Japan in Soviet officials asserted that their government would propose disarmament talks with Japan and might make more proposals on the Northern Territories in connection with the visit.
Observers believed that Gorbachev might propose a package dealing with the islands, arms reduction, and economic cooperation. In Januarythe Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs shifted its position, which previously had rejected negotiations with the Soviet Union on arms reductions, indicating that Japan would be willing to negotiate.
Ministry officials stated that the government would formulate policy on arms reduction in close coordination with the United States. The government of Boris Yeltsin took power in Russia in late when the Soviet Union was dissolved.
Once again, Moscow took a stand in firm opposition to returning the disputed territories to Japan. Although Japan joined with the Group of Seven industrialized nations in providing some technical and financial assistance to Russia, relations between Japan and Russia remained cold. The visit finally took place in October During the visit, although various substantive issues, including the Northern Territories and the signing of a peace treaty, were discussed, no significant improvement was seen in Japan-Russia relations.Heading East: Japanese talk about Russia & Putin ahead of visit
Unfortunately before his death, his policy with the Russian Federation has eluded implementation and the relations between the two nations remained without a state of peace. Economic relations[ edit ] Complicating economic relations between Japan and the Soviet Union were the Cold War realities and the above-mentioned territorial disputes.
Abe has now met with Putin on more than 20 occasions since he took office in late —this is his second stint in office, after a run from towith Putin as his counterpart. Instead, the two sides have had to agree on much lower-hanging fruit such as working toward joint economic development on the four disputed islands.
Japan–Soviet Union relations
Despite these small positive moves, on the more sensitive issue of sovereignty, however, both sides remain far apart on any potential deal. Tokyo continues to insist that it wants all four islands returned, while Moscow appears unwilling to budge an inch on the return of territory, resulting in a stalemate that continues to hold up the signing of a formal peace treaty to end hostilities from World War II. Putin has been keeping Abe on the line by not entirely dismissing a potential deal and has insisted that a mutual resolution is possible but would take time.
The most commonly discussed resolutions revolve around the return of the Shikotan and Habomai islets—only 7 percent of the total territory of the southern Kurils—and some form of joint administration or development of the larger islands. But despite some Japanese flexibility on the issues, sovereignty concerns and territorial administration approaches continue to be unpalatable to Russia.
Moscow certainly would like to improve bilateral relations with Japan and welcomes greater investment from Japanese companies, especially as relationships with Europe and the United States continue to freeze. But the bedrock nationalism of the Russian public makes it difficult to imagine a trade of territory—especially territory taken in the Great Patriotic War—in return for merely economic incentives.
Meanwhile, Japan continues to have sanctions in place on Russia resulting from its actions in Ukraine and has riled Moscow through its decision to deploy an advanced U. Moreover, Japanese multinational companies—which are being pushed to further these economic plans through joint ventures and investment in the Russian Far East—are hesitant to invest their money in Russia.
This has created a sense of frustration in Japan, where progress is seen as incremental at best. In theory, this could also help Japan, which is energy-strapped and overly reliant on the Middle East for its energy supply. But the intractability of the territorial row may not be a problem for Abe so long as he keeps putting in effort.