the importance of understanding all the relationships and terminology for the often coincides with the halocline, the region where salinity changes sharply with the depth range and base of both the pycnocline and thermocline often tend to . Relationship between pycnocline, halocline, and thermocline pH of the ocean Relationship between carbon dioxide and ocean pH Group 7- Pirates!. Then there is a pycnocline that develops because of a thermocline (temperature decreases with depth to 4°C). Below the pycnocline is a mixed layer where.
The permanent thermocline coincides with a change in water density between the warmer, low-density surface waters and the underlying cold dense bottom waters.
The region of rapid density change is known as the pycnocline, and it acts as a barrier to vertical water circulation; thus it also affects the vertical distribution of certain chemicals which play a role in the biology of the seas. The sharp gradients in temperature and density also may act as a restriction to vertical movements of animals.
The separation due to the pycnocline formation prevents the supply of nutrients from the lower layer into the upper layer. Nutrient fluxes through the pycnocline are lower than at other surface layers.
The term "microbial loop" was coined by Azam et al.
At the end of phytoplankton bloom, when the algae enter a senescent stage, there is an accumulation of phytodetritus and an increased release of dissolved metabolites. It is particularly at this time that the bacteria can utilize these energy sources to multiply and produce a sharp pulse or bloom that follows the phytoplankton bloom.
G115 - Introduction to Oceanography
The same relationship between phytoplankton and bacteria influences the vertical distribution of bacterioplankton. Maximum numbers of bacteria generally occur at the pycnocline, where phytodetritus accumulates by sinking from the overlying euphotic zone.
There, decomposition by bacteria contributes to the formation of oxygen minimum layers in stable waters. This has often been referred to as diurnal or diel vertical migration.
Pycnocline - Wikipedia
However, in the surface layer, salinity and temperature are constant with depth because waves and currents keep this layer well mixed. Temperature and salinity directly influence density. In general, cold temperatures and increases in salinity act to increase seawater density. Conversely, warm temperatures and decreases in salinity act to decrease seawater density.
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The middle layer, as defined by water density, is called the pycnocline. The pycnocline is an area where density changes rapidly with depth — from the top to the bottom of this layer density changes dramatically. This rapid change in density is directly related to the rapid change in temperature thermocline and salinity halocline in this layer.
The bottom layer is called the deep zone and extends from the bottom of the pycnocline to the seafloor. In this layer, temperature is varies little with depth and is very cold. Salinity in the deep zone is also constant and averages about 3.
Because of the cold temperatures, and to a lesser degree the salinities, we find that the deep zone has the most dense seawater.