The maintenance of bone mineral density levels is an important concern for Maddalozzo and Snow () examined this question in relation to elderly men and women. The added benefits of increased lean mass and muscle strength are. To determine whether a strength index that accounts for both bone density and noted a probable relationship between early changes in bone resorption and. Dec 4, The Link Between Exercise and Healthy Bones Exercise is known to increase bone density and improve overall bone health. However, not.
None of the subjects had participated in an exercise or resistance training program for the two years preceding the study. Baseline measurements were taken for bone mass, body composition, Insulin-like Growth Factor IGF-I the bone deposition favoring hormoneand one repetition maximum 1-RM.
Moderate-Intensity Resistance Training The moderate-intensity resistance training program was a seated, machine-based program. The subjects in this group trained three times per week for about 75 minutes per supervised session.
This group performed 13 exercises each session on weight machines. The exercises included; leg extension, leg press, hamstring curls, arm curls, triceps press, chest press, pec deck, shoulder press, side lateral raise, lat pull-down, seated row, abdominal crunch, and calf raise. This resistance training program resulted in a significant increase in bone mineral density of the greater trochanter for both males and females.
Moderate-intensity resistance training also significantly increased lean mass 3. However, there was no significant change in IGF-I for either group. This lack of IGF-I indicates that the increases in bone mineral density were more than likely a result of physical stresses on the bone and not hormonal effects. High-Intensity Resistance Training The high-intensity resistance training groups also trained three times per week for about 75 minutes per supervised session.
However, these participants used free-weights in a functional standing program. This program involved 12 exercises; free weight back squat, deadlift, biceps curls, sit-ups, triceps extensions, chest press, incline chest press, shoulder press, high lat pull-down, leg curl, gripper, and calf raise. Subjects performed three sets of eight repetitions. One key difference of this resistance program was that it was periodized.
There were two week sessions separated by one transitional nonresistance fitness activities week to allow recovery from the high exercise intensity and prevent injuries. High intensity resistance exercise also resulted in a significant increase in bone mineral density of the greater trochanter for both men and women. However, only men achieved the added result of a significant increase in lumbar spine bone mineral density.
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High-intensity resistance training resulted in significant increases in lean mass 8. Again, there were no significant changes in IGF-I for either gender which reemphasizes the probability that physical stress was responsible for the increases in bone mass. Clinical Applications The results of this study demonstrate that both males and females benefit from resistance exercise three times per week of both moderate- and high-intensities.
However, there are always individual conditions to consider.Strengthening Your Bones Through Exercise
People interested in starting a resistance-training program should consult with their physician first, especially if they are elderly, hypertensive, or have musculoskeletal injuries or diseases. It is suggested that if appropriate for the individual, high-intensity resistance training with the proper recovery periods is more beneficial. High-intensity resistance exercise favored bone formation slightly better than moderate-intensity resistance exercise, especially for elderly men.
If it is not safe to have an individual elderly client perform the high-intensity exercises, then the moderate- to low-intensities may more appropriate.
Even consider the possibility of combining intensities. Each resistance training program must be tailored for the specific individual and each provides important benefits. The added benefits of increased lean mass and muscle strength are especially important for elderly clients as they may help prevent fall and injuries and preserve independence.
Summary High-intensity and moderate-intensity resistance exercises, when properly progressed and supervised, are safe and beneficial activities for many elderly clients that improve musculoskeletal health and may reduce the likelihood of falling. S and Len Kravitz, Ph.
Introduction Exercise has been shown to increase bone strength, as measured by bone mineral density BMDin people of all age groups. The degree to which bone strength improves, however, is dependent on a variety of factors, including age, reproductive hormone status, nutritional status, and the nature of the exercise. A complete understanding of how bone loading results in gains in BMD has not been entirely explained, and little data exist for men due to the focus on osteoporosis in women.
This article will highlight contemporary concepts reviewed by Beck and Snow on exercise for the improvement of BMD as it relates primarily to women throughout their lifespan. Specificity The exercise program should be designed to load specific target bone s or body sites. For example, if gains in bone mass in the hip and femur are desired, an exercise plan that loads those specific sites, such as running or jumping, is indicated.
Overload In order to stimulate BMD gains in a particular bone, an exercise must overload that bone. This load imposed on a bone during exercise must be substantially greater than that experienced during normal activities of daily living.
In other words, there is a certain threshold of loading which needs to be reached in order to produce a bone mass gain.
However, much research is needed to more completely identify the recommended intensities for optimal bone adaptation. Reversibility In adults, any gains made in BMD during an exercise program will likely be lost if the program is stopped. However, various studies with children and teenagers whose skeletons are still growing suggest some of the gains achieved from increased mechanical loading during an exercise program may be retained, even if the exercise program is discontinued.
Initial Values Subjects with below average initial BMD values will show greater gains in bone mass with exercise, as compared to persons with average or above average values.
Exercise and Bone Strength
After the initial increase, gains will continue, but at a slower pace. As well, to prevent these gains from being lost, the concept of lifetime exercise needs to be wholly encouraged, especially for adults. It may be helpful to periodically remind adult clients that the BMD benefits that they acquire from exercising are only sustained with the maintenance of their exercise program.
Still, it is important to take into account the specific circumstances of each individual, such as age, hormonal status, and nutritional status, as these factors also play an important role in determining bone health. Numerous studies have demonstrated that adults who exercise have greater bone mass than those who are less active.
The effects of progressive resistance training on bone density: a review.
The degree of increase in bone density depends on the mode and intensity of exercise, the number of years training, and the age at which training began. Interestingly, higher BMD in athletes has been found at the body sites loaded during their respective sports, validating the principle of specificity elaborated above.
As well, certain activities may not apply a sufficient enough overload to cause an increase in bone mass. Athletes who perform moderate to high-intensity impact activities, such as in gymnastics, power lifting, and jumping activities, have been found to have greater BMD than those performing non-impact or low-intensity activities, such as swimming and cycling.
Some elite swimmers have even been found to have a lower BMD than non-exercisers, apparently due to unloading of their bones, which takes place during extending periods of time in a buoyant environment. It is especially beneficial for adults with low initial BMD values to begin exercise programs that enhance BMD, as these are the individuals who will see the most impressive gains.