For more than 50 years schools such as the United World Colleges, have been working to foster peace and international understanding. I am curious about. I think writing the word "conflicts" in the plural was written in error but it is actually correct as there are many types of conflict in the diplomatic world and there are. This article proposes a definition of peace and develops guidelines for Article. The relationship between peace building and development.
They may be binding, acting to control or regulate behavior.
Such prescriptive expectations in social contracts are mores long-term, morally binding customsnorms, the law-norms of groups, 23 or the customary or positive law of societies or states. Even the "rules of morality constitute a tacit social contract" Hazlitt, Regardless of whether the focus is the rights or obligations, the distributions, or the guides or prescriptions between parties structured by their social contract, these expectations share one characteristic: With a social contract, each party can reliably foresee and plan on the outcome of its behavior regarding the other, as over, for example, claims, privileges, duties, or services.
What responses to anticipate, the prospect of reciprocity, the likelihood of particular sanctions, are clear.
Peace and conflict studies
Social contracts are thus our social organs of peace, extending into the future mutual paths of social certainty and thus confidence. They may be implicit, tacit agreements that the parties choose not to mention, as a wife's acceptance of her husband's affairs; or they may be explicit, such as a verbal contract. They may be subconscious, as when co-workers unconsciously avoid sensitive topics over which they might fight.
Or, of course, the social contract may be conscious. These three dimensions--in formal versus formal, implicit versus explicit, and subconscious versus conscious--concern the actuality of social contracts, whether they are a latent agreement underlying social behavior or a manifest compact of some kind. A direct social contract is a specific agreement between particular parties. It gives or implies names, dates, places, and definite expectations.
Contracts are usually thought of as this kind, such as a construction contract between two firms or a trade treaty among three states. However, direct contracts may overlap or be interconnected through the different parties, and thus form a system of contracts. And these systems themselves may overlap and be interdependent. Out of these diverse, interconnected, and related direct contracts and systems of contracts will develop more general expectations, such as abstract rules, norms, or privileges at the level of the social system itself.
No one will have agreed to these expectations per se, nor are they connected to any particular interest, but they nonetheless comprise a social contract albeit an indirect one covering the social system.
The prices of goods in a free market comprise such an indirect social contract evolving from the diverse direct contracts between buyers and sellers. A second type of theoretical dimension delineates a social contract's generality. One such dimension concerns whether a contract is unique or common. A unique social contract is a one-time-only agreement within a unique situation and concerning nonrepetitive events or interaction between the parties.
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Such is the implicit agreement wrought in an alley by a thug, whose knife coerces you to hand over your money; another example is a two-hour ceasefire agreement to enable combatants to clear the battlefield of wounded, or a neutral state granting American relief planes a once-only flyover to rush food and medicine to earthquake victims in a neighboring state.
By contrast, a common social contract involves repeated events or patterns of interaction. Treaties, legal contracts, constitutions, and charters are usually of this type. Clearly, the unique-common dimension is a continuum, since between the unique two-minute holdup and the common, overriding political constitution of a state are a variety of social contracts combining in different ways unique and common expectations. Turning to the second generality dimension shown in Table 2. The latter covers a society, community, or a group.
Constitutions or charters are of this type, as are an organization's bylaws.
While this may seem clear enough, there is an intellectual trap to avoid here--that of always viewing collective social contracts as necessarily constructed, designed, or the explicit and conscious outcome of a rational process of negotiation.
The integrated system of abstract rules, norms, mores, and customs spanning a society form an indirect, collective social contract. It is implicit and informal; its expectations are partly conscious, partly unconscious. Negative peace refers to the absence of direct violence. Positive peace refers to the absence of indirect and structural violenceand is the concept that most peace and conflict researchers adopt.
This is often credited to Galtung  but these terms were previously used by Martin Luther King in the Letter from a Birmingham Jail inin which he wrote about "negative peace which is the absence of tension" and "positive peace which is the presence of justice.
What is Peace and Conflict studies? - Kulturstudier
Several conceptions, models, or modes of peace have been suggested in which peace research might prosper. The premise is simple for peace researchers: Second, the view that violence is sinful or unskillful, and that non-violence is skillful or virtuous and should be cultivated. This view is held by a variety of religious traditions worldwide: Quakers, Mennonites and other Peace churches within Christianity; Jainsthe Satyagraha tradition in HinduismBuddhismand other portions of Indian religion and philosophy ; as well as certain schools of Islam [ citation needed ].
A further approach is that there are multiple modes of peace. These range from the well known works of KantLockeRousseauPaineon various liberal international and constitutional and plans for peace.
Peace and conflict studies - Wikipedia
UdayakumarTom Woodhouseothers mentioned above and many more. Democratic peaceliberal peace, sustainable peace, civil peace, hybrid peace, post-liberal peace, trans-rational peace s and other concepts are regularly used in such work.
Sustainable peace[ edit ] Under the conceptions of peace, sustainable peace must be regarded as an important factor for the future of prosperity. Sustainable peace must be the priority of global society where state actors and non-state actors do not only seek for the profits in a near future that might violate the stable state of peace.
For a sustainable peace, nurturing, empowerment, and communications are considered to be the crucial factors throughout the world.
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Firstly, nurturing is necessary to encourage psychological stability and emotional maturity. At the Convention in San Diego, I detected concern about the state of the field, and thought, at that time, there was little to be concerned about because of the large numbers of academics and practitioners thinking, writing and acting both at the Convention and at the outside world.
By the time of the Convention in San Francisco, I began to understand some of this concern—or at least thought I did. It seemed to me as I travelled from panel to panel across the spectrum of the Convention that a number of fields had adopted the language of peace and conflict studies, but had failed to really take on board the normative, or ethical if you will, prescriptions that inform the kinds of work we do and our reasons for doing it.
I felt that this was particularly so when, at the San Francisco Convention, I introduced a request brought to me by a PSS member, asking the membership to consider changing the name of the section from Peace Studies to something more inclusive, like Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution or Peace and Conflict Studies. The debate at the Business Meeting was spirited but in the end, inconclusive; and so the motion was tabled at that time.
In order to help us frame these issues, I would like to begin with a series of questions: What are the boundaries between peace studies and conflict studies, if any?Buddhism: A Pathway to Peace and Conflict Resolution
If there are boundaries, are they hard and fast, or is there overlap? Does the semantic separation mask a unity of the field do we call ourselves different things only because of institutional pressures?